Timeline 1300 to 1323
1300 May - Edward starts another Scottish campaign
After staying briefly at the Abbey of Bury St.
Edmunds, Edward I travelled north to Carlisle. His son, Edward II of
Caernarvon remained at the Abbey for a week longer, living as a monk, before
following his father. The king ensured his standard had been blessed by
every holy relic that the Abbey possessed.
July - Caerlaverock Castle siege
The castle fell within 5 days and the Scots gave
Edward I little resistance. Edward (II) of Caernarvon took control of the
rearguard of the English army and apart from a small skirmish, saw no action.
Aug - The Pope Intervenes
The Pope sent a letter to Edward demanding that
he should withdraw from Scotland. Edward ignored the letter, but because
the campaign was not a success, the English soon left for England anyway.
Oct 30 - Truce with the Scots
Edward arranged a truce and returned to England.
1301 Feb - Edward (II) invested as Prince of Wales
Edward (II) was invested by his father king Edward
I as 'Prince of Wales' and was granted royal lands in Wales.
May 20 - Treaty finally signed
The peace treaty between England and France was
Summer - Edward advances into Scotland
Edward I finds the land laid waste as he advanced
into Scotland. At Linlithgow he halted, built a castle where he spent Christmas.
1302 Spring - Treaty is signed
Edward and the Scots signed a peace treaty and
John Segrave was left in charge in Scotland with a force of 20,000 men.
1303 Edward takes Urquhart Castle
As part of Edward's campaign in Scotland he attacked
and took control of Urquhart Castle on Loch Ness. Sir Alexander Comyn was
left in change.
Treaty of Paris
After Philippe IV's defeat at Courtrai, he called
on Edward I for a peace treaty. Part to this involved Edward regined some
French land and Philippe's daughter marrying Edward's son, the future Edward
II, king of England.
Spring - John Comyn is appointed regent
The Scots appointed John Comyn as regent and with
Sir Simon Frazer he marched south from northern Scotland to repel the English.
Segrave was captured by the Scottish forces.
May - Edward's last campaign in Scotland
William Wallace had returned to Scotland from France
where he had been in exile and so Edward took an army into Scotland.
Dec - Edward stays at Dunfermline Abbey
Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey
where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle.
1304 Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building
Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building
Spring - Edward besieges Stirling Castle
Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle.
Jul - Stirling Castle surrenders
The Scots surrendered Stirling Castle to Edward.
1305 William Wallace captured
William Wallace was betrayed and captured by the
Aug - Wallace executed
William Wallace was tried and executed.
1306 Philippe confiscates Italian bankers' goods
To regain money spent on expanding his domains,
Philippe turns his attentions to Italian bankers and Jews within the country
from whome he can confiscate goods.
Feb 10 - John Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce
Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn.
Mar 25 - Robert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland
At Scone, Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland.
1307 Philippe adds Bigorre to his territories
By paying rent to the Bishop of Puy, Philippe added
the county of Bigorre to his lands.
May 10 - Battle of Loudoun Hill
The English are defeated by the Scots at the battle
of Loundoun Hill lead by Robert I of Scotland.
Jul 8 - Edward II becomes king
Edward the eldest son of Edward I became King of
Oct 13 - Knights Templar are arrested
King Philippe of France ordered the arrest of all
Knight Templars in France. The order to arrest the Templars was sent out
several weeks before the date possibly giving the Templars time to hide
1308 Rebuilding work at Exeter Cathedral
The smaller choir transepts, rood screen and sedilia
were all constructed between 1308 and 1326 under Bishop Stapledon.
Bruce takes Urquhart Castle
Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed
it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray.
Jan 25 - Edward marries
Edward II married Isabella of France, the daughter
of King Philippe IV of France. The marriage took place at Boulogne and
Edward left Gaveston as Regent in his absence. Edward alienated the Lords
by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position.
Feb 25 - Edward's Coronation
Edward II was crowned at Westminster Abbey. During
the ceremony Gaveston was given the honour of carrying the crown. During
the banquet that followed the King spent much more time with Gaveston than
his wife. The Queen's uncles, who had travelled with her from France, left
to report back to the King of France of the King's favouritism for Gaveston
over Isabella. As part of the coronation ceremony Edward swore an oath
that he should abide by the laws and customs that the community and realm
Jun - Gaveston banished
Parliament was unhappy with Gaveston's actions
as Regent while Edward was away. Gaveston's closeness to Edward was also
distressing for Edward's new wife as well. Parliament concluded that Edward
should remove Gaveston and the knight was given the role of Lieutenant
1309 Bruce recognised as King
Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of
Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews.
1310 Wells Cathedral Lady Chapel
Work commenced on the Lady Chapel of Wells Cathedral.
Sep - Edward campaigns in Scotland
Supported by Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Cornwall,
Edward took an army into Scotland. Edward directed the assaults from Berwick.
The campaign was fruitless eventhough Gaveston managed to reach as far
north as Perth.
1311 Bruce attacks the north
The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the
opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly
paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this
way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army.
Qtr 1 - Lancaster pays homage
Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the
new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland
but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston
Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused
to meet him.
Qtr 1 - The rise of Thomas Earl of Lancaster
While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the
Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of
Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already
held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles,
made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston
was to become a major problem for the king.
Jul - Edward returns to England
Edward II left Scotland and returned to England
to attend a session of Parliament. Gaveston was left behind at Bamburgh
Castle where he was relatively safe from the Lords Ordainers.
Aug - Ordinances
A series of government acts made by the lords Ordinaners
to access control over Edward II. This involved increasing their control
over Edward's finances, renewing Piers Gaveston's banishment, etc.
Sep 27 - Ordinances Proclaimed
The Ordinances were publicly proclaimed at Paul's
Cross. In addition, Gaveston was ordered to leave the country by the 1st
of November and to be stripped of his titles. Nov 3 - Gaveston leaves
Gaveston left the country a few days later than
he should have done, but even then he didn't go far. By Christmas he had
returned to Edward's side and made public appearances with the King. Edward
also gave Gaveston his title of Earl of Cornwall back to him.
1312 Qtr 1 - Edward looks to Scotland for help
Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop
of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to
prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to
Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome. At Tynemouth
the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything
including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough
Castle and Edward went to York.
May - Gaveston surrenders
While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway
between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining,
the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle
was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after
a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke
gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented
Jun 19 - Gaveston executed
The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston,
stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to
other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence
and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick castle and Gaveston
was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel
and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took
him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication,
the body was not buried straight away.
Nov - Future Edward III is born
Edward the future king of England was born at Windsor
Castle and was known as Edward Windsor.
1313 The Scots regain ground
Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's
army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edingburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation.
Montagne and Tournai fall to Philippe
More lands were added to Philippe's domain.
Jun - Stirling Castle Siege
Stirling castle was still under the control of
English forces but was under siege from the Scots lead by Edward Bruce.
Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement
that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray
would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the
castle to inform the English king of the agreement.
Dec 23 - Edward prepares for invasion
The king call upon the earls to provide men and
arms and to meet at Berwick on the 10th of June 1314 to attack the Scots.
1314 Bruce orders destruction of castles
To prevent Scottish castles falling into English
hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and
Edinburgh should be destroyed.
Mar 18 - Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney
burnt at the stake.
Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney were burnt
at the stake declaring their orthodoxy on an island on the River Seine.
Apr 20 - Pope Clement V dies
When the Knight Templar leader Jaques de Molay
was burnt at the stake on 12 March 1314 he vowed that the Pope would soon
die. Pope Clement V was dead within 40 days.
Jun 17 - Edward leaves Berwick
Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to
Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle
were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots.
Jun 24 - Battle of Bannockburn
Forces lead by Edward II are defeated by Robert
I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve
the forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and
helped them to make some gains of land in northern England, even if it
Sep - Edward loses power to Lancaster
After the defeat at Bannockburn, the death of Gloucester
and his army scattered, Edward had to hand power over to the Earl of Lancaster
and the Lords Ordainers. Lancaster had kept back his own personal army
in readiness for Edward's return and Edward had no option. Lancaster then
replaced the Edward's supporters in key seats of power with his own Lancastrian
Nov 29 - Philippe IV, the Fair dies, and is succeeded
by Louis X
Philippe, King of France, died of a hunting accident
within the same year as the deaths of the Knight Templar leaders at the
stake. His was succeeded by his eldest son Louis X.
Dec - Gaveston buried
Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston
buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King
was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish
ceremony to bury his dead friend.
1315 Lancaster in power
For the whole of 1315 Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster
was in control of England and he embarked on a campaign to create a network
of supporters in all positions of power. It seems that every section of
society had Lancastrians that he could depend on.
Thomas (Earl of Lancaster)
A year of flood, famine and disease
Natural disasters this year across Europe leading
to economic problems.
Wells Cathedral Central Tower
Work commenced on the central tower of Wells Cathedral.
This needed strengthening and in 1338, new internal arches were added to
support the weight.
1316 More famines and floods.
Natural disasters this year across Europe lead
to economic problems.
Philippe V becomes King of France
Philippe, the brother of the previous King of France,
became regent and then King of France.
Philippe (V, the Tall, King of France 1316-1322)
John (I, King of France 1316)
1318 Aug - Hugh Despenser is made Chamberlain
Edward II made Hugh Despenser his new Chamberlain.
EDWARD (II, King of England 1307-1327)
Despenser, Hugh (the younger)
Aug 9 - Treaty of Leake
The Earl of Pembroke and his 'Middle Party' held
discussions with the Earl of Lancaster during which it was agreed that
a council should be formed that would advise the King, and that the King
should not be able to act without the council's advice. Lancaster was also
assured that he and his followers would be pardoned for any illegal acts
that they may have performed during the time of their power. Lancaster
agreed to the Treaty and met Edward to reconcile their differences.
S1319 Jun - Edward marches to free Berwick
The last Scottish town to be held in English hands
had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward
and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and
together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.
Sep 20 - Battle of Myton
While the best of the English army were at Berwick,
a Scottish army lead by Sir James Douglas invaded Yorkshire. With an untrained
army, the Archbishop of York William Melton tried to fight off the Scots
but was defeated at Myton-in-Swalesdale. With the Scots threatening their
lands in the north, the earls with Edward at Berwick abandoned the siege
and returned to home. Queen Isabella who was in York at the time managed
to escape to safety at Nottingham.
1320 Apr - Declaration of Arbroath
Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath
which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This
was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication
order under which Robert was still held for the death of John Comyn in
1321 Qtr 1 - Despenser and the Marcher Lords
Hugh Despenser began obtaining lands in South Wales.
He did this by exchanging estates he held in England and by obtaining grants
from the king. He even obtained the Isle of Lundy. When the last male heir
of the Marcher Lord Braose family died, Despenser was able to obtain the
land that the family owned in and around Swansea. This angered the other
Marcher Lords as they had customs that allowed land to pass into the hands
of one another. The Marcher Lords threatened to start a civil war and it
was agreed that a Parliament should be called to settle the matter. It
was also agreed that Despenser was to be held in custody by Lancaster until
the meeting but Despenser refused.
May 24 - Meeting at Pontefract
Lancester held the first of two meetings to gather
support of Barons and the clergy to remove the Despensers from power. The
second meeting at Sherborn-in-Elmet near York was held on June 28th.
Jul - Parliament at Westminster
Lancaster put a large amount of pressure on Edward
to remove the Despensers from power. The Marcher Lords brought a force
to London and threats were made that Edward would be removed from the throne
if he did not comply.
Aug - The Despensers are banished
Both Despensers were banished from England. Hugh,
the elder left without any fuss, but his son, Hugh the younger had different
ideas and at first was given refuge by sailors of a Cinque Port and then
started a spell of piracy.
Oct - Siege of Leeds Castle
Edward was forced to lay siege to Leeds Castle
after an incident involving his wife Queen Isabella. The Queen had wanted
to stay at the castle while travelling to Canterbury but was refused entry
by the owners wife. The owner of the castle, who was not there at the time,
was Lord Badlesmere, a supporter of Lancaster. When Isabella's men tried
to gain access to the castle, some of them were killed. On hearing of the
problem, Edward took an army to the castle and after a week broke the siege.
Several of the Marcher Lords began to march into England in support of
Lord Badlesmere. They only got as far as Kingston-upon-Thames when the
siege ended. Edward then had every excuse to engage the Marcher Lords in
their act of rebellion.
1322 Charles IV becomes King of France . Charles
succeeds his brother Philippe as King of France.
Qtr 1 - Edward attacks the Marcher Lords
Edward advanced up the Severn Valley and crossed
the river at Shrewsbury. Several of the Marcher Lords surrendered to the
King without a fight. Lancaster had moved to his base at Pontefract. The
King took time to take control the castles belonging to the Marcher Lords.
Jan - The Despensers return
The Archbishop of Canterbury had ruled that the
banishment of the Despensers was illegal at the end of 1321 and as soon
as they heard the news, the Despensers returned to England.
Mar 16 - Battle of Boroughbridge
Lancaster left his base at Pontract and headed
north. At the bridge crossing the river Ure at Boroughbridge he was halted
by an army lead by Andrew Harcley, the Earl of Carlisle. Harcley held the
bridge against Lancaster's attacks and Lancaster was forced to surrender.
Lancaster was taken back to Pontefract where Edward had taken control.
Mar 22 - Lancaster Executed
Edward finally had his revenge for the death of
Gaveston when Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster was executed outside the walls
of Pontefract castle.
May - Parliament at York
Edward was now back in control of the country and
at the Parliament held at York the rebels who had fought against him were
punished, many being executed for treason. The Ordinances against Edward
were repealed and those who had supported Edward through the bad times
were rewarded. The elder Hugh Despenser was made Earl of Winchester. The
younger Despenser was given large amounts of land forfeited by the rebels.
S Jul - The Scots invade
The two year truce that had been agreed after the
failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded
the north of England. Aug - Edward advances into Scotland
In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the
north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland.
The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies
in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive.
Oct - Edward almost captured
After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen
Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby
and met the English army lead by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland.
The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture.
Isabella too escaped.
1323 Mar - Peace negotiations
Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations
for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties
because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially
refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward
I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had lead to the start of negotiations.
Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground
for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions
were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle
was executed as a traitor.
May - Treaty signed
A thirteen year peace was signed at York between
Scotland and England.
Autumn - Mortimer escapes from the Tower
Mortomer of Wigmore escaped from the Tower of London.