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Bo20 Margaret de Bohun

  was the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun Bo21, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet Pl21, daughter of Edward I and widow of John, Count of Holland.
Born: 3 April 1311
Died: 16 Dec. 1391
Married: Hugh de Courtenay Co20
and had issue: 
Co19 Elizabeth de Courtenay, married Sir Andrew Lutterell Lu19
Timeline 1300 to 1323
1300 May - Edward starts another Scottish campaign 
 After staying briefly at the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, Edward I travelled north to Carlisle. His son, Edward II of Caernarvon remained at the Abbey for a week longer, living as a monk, before following his father. The king ensured his standard had been blessed by every holy relic that the Abbey possessed.
  July - Caerlaverock Castle siege 
 The castle fell within 5 days and the Scots gave Edward I little resistance. Edward (II) of Caernarvon took control of the rearguard of the English army and apart from a small skirmish, saw no action. 
  Aug - The Pope Intervenes 
 The Pope sent a letter to Edward demanding that he should withdraw from Scotland. Edward ignored the letter, but because the campaign was not a success, the English soon left for England anyway. 
  Oct 30 - Truce with the Scots 
 Edward arranged a truce and returned to England. 

1301 Feb - Edward (II) invested as Prince of Wales 
 Edward (II) was invested by his father king Edward I as 'Prince of Wales' and was granted royal lands in Wales. 

 May 20 - Treaty finally signed 
 The peace treaty between England and France was finally signed. 

 Summer - Edward advances into Scotland 
 Edward I finds the land laid waste as he advanced into Scotland. At Linlithgow he halted, built a castle where he spent Christmas. 
 1302 Spring - Treaty is signed 
 Edward and the Scots signed a peace treaty and John Segrave was left in charge in Scotland with a force of 20,000 men. 
1303 Edward takes Urquhart Castle 
 As part of Edward's campaign in Scotland he attacked and took control of Urquhart Castle on Loch Ness. Sir Alexander Comyn was left in change. 

Treaty of Paris 
 After Philippe IV's defeat at Courtrai, he called on Edward I for a peace treaty. Part to this involved Edward regined some French land and Philippe's daughter marrying Edward's son, the future Edward II, king of England. 

Spring - John Comyn is appointed regent 
 The Scots appointed John Comyn as regent and with Sir Simon Frazer he marched south from northern Scotland to repel the English. Segrave was captured by the Scottish forces. 
  May - Edward's last campaign in Scotland 
 William Wallace had returned to Scotland from France where he had been in exile and so Edward took an army into Scotland. 
  Dec - Edward stays at Dunfermline Abbey 
 Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle. 

1304 Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building work 
 Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building work. 
 See Also 
 Canterbury Cathedral 

 Spring - Edward besieges Stirling Castle 
 Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle. 

 Jul - Stirling Castle surrenders 
 The Scots surrendered Stirling Castle to Edward. 

1305 William Wallace captured 
 William Wallace was betrayed and captured by the English. 
  Aug - Wallace executed 
 William Wallace was tried and executed. 

1306 Philippe confiscates Italian bankers' goods 
 To regain money spent on expanding his domains, Philippe turns his attentions to Italian bankers and Jews within the country from whome he can confiscate goods. 
  Feb 10 - John Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce 
 Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn. 
  Mar 25 - Robert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland 
 At Scone, Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland. 
 1307 Philippe adds Bigorre to his territories 
 By paying rent to the Bishop of Puy, Philippe added the county of Bigorre to his lands. 
  May 10 - Battle of Loudoun Hill 
 The English are defeated by the Scots at the battle of Loundoun Hill lead by Robert I of Scotland. 
  Jul 8 - Edward II becomes king 
 Edward the eldest son of Edward I became King of England. 
  Oct 13 - Knights Templar are arrested 
 King Philippe of France ordered the arrest of all Knight Templars in France. The order to arrest the Templars was sent out several weeks before the date possibly giving the Templars time to hide their wealth. 
1308 Rebuilding work at Exeter Cathedral 
 The smaller choir transepts, rood screen and sedilia were all constructed between 1308 and 1326 under Bishop Stapledon. 
  Bruce takes Urquhart Castle 
 Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray. 
 Jan 25 - Edward marries 
 Edward II married Isabella of France, the daughter of King Philippe IV of France. The marriage took place at Boulogne and Edward left Gaveston as Regent in his absence. Edward alienated the Lords by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position. 

 Feb 25 - Edward's Coronation 
 Edward II was crowned at Westminster Abbey. During the ceremony Gaveston was given the honour of carrying the crown. During the banquet that followed the King spent much more time with Gaveston than his wife. The Queen's uncles, who had travelled with her from France, left to report back to the King of France of the King's favouritism for Gaveston over Isabella. As part of the coronation ceremony Edward swore an oath that he should abide by the laws and customs that the community and realm determined. 

 Jun - Gaveston banished 
 Parliament was unhappy with Gaveston's actions as Regent while Edward was away. Gaveston's closeness to Edward was also distressing for Edward's new wife as well. Parliament concluded that Edward should remove Gaveston and the knight was given the role of Lieutenant of Ireland. 

1309 Bruce recognised as King 
 Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews. 

1310 Wells Cathedral Lady Chapel 
 Work commenced on the Lady Chapel of Wells Cathedral. 

 Sep - Edward campaigns in Scotland 
 Supported by Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Cornwall, Edward took an army into Scotland. Edward directed the assaults from Berwick. The campaign was fruitless eventhough Gaveston managed to reach as far north as Perth. 

1311 Bruce attacks the north 
 The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army. 
  Qtr 1 - Lancaster pays homage 
 Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused to meet him. 

 Qtr 1 - The rise of Thomas Earl of Lancaster 
 While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles, made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston was to become a major problem for the king. 
  Jul - Edward returns to England 
 Edward II left Scotland and returned to England to attend a session of Parliament. Gaveston was left behind at Bamburgh Castle where he was relatively safe from the Lords Ordainers. 
  Aug - Ordinances 
 A series of government acts made by the lords Ordinaners to access control over Edward II. This involved increasing their control over Edward's finances, renewing Piers Gaveston's banishment, etc. 

 Sep 27 - Ordinances Proclaimed 
 The Ordinances were publicly proclaimed at Paul's Cross. In addition, Gaveston was ordered to leave the country by the 1st of November and to be stripped of his titles.  Nov 3 - Gaveston leaves 
 Gaveston left the country a few days later than he should have done, but even then he didn't go far. By Christmas he had returned to Edward's side and made public appearances with the King. Edward also gave Gaveston his title of Earl of Cornwall back to him. 
 1312 Qtr 1 - Edward looks to Scotland for help 
 Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome. At Tynemouth the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough Castle and Edward went to York. 
  May - Gaveston surrenders 
 While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining, the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented to Parliament. 
Jun 19 - Gaveston executed 
 The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston, stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick castle and Gaveston was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication, the body was not buried straight away. 

 Nov - Future Edward III is born 
 Edward the future king of England was born at Windsor Castle and was known as Edward Windsor. 

1313 The Scots regain ground 
 Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edingburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation. 
  Montagne and Tournai fall to Philippe 
 More lands were added to Philippe's domain. 
  Jun - Stirling Castle Siege 
 Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots lead by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement. 
Dec 23 - Edward prepares for invasion 
 The king call upon the earls to provide men and arms and to meet at Berwick on the 10th of June 1314 to attack the Scots. 
 1314 Bruce orders destruction of castles 
 To prevent Scottish castles falling into English hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and Edinburgh should be destroyed. 
 Mar 18 - Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney burnt at the stake. 
 Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney were burnt at the stake declaring their orthodoxy on an island on the River Seine. 
  Apr 20 - Pope Clement V dies 
 When the Knight Templar leader Jaques de Molay was burnt at the stake on 12 March 1314 he vowed that the Pope would soon die. Pope Clement V was dead within 40 days. 
  Jun 17 - Edward leaves Berwick 
 Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots. 
  Jun 24 - Battle of Bannockburn 
 Forces lead by Edward II are defeated by Robert I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve the forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and helped them to make some gains of land in northern England, even if it was short-lived. 

 Sep - Edward loses power to Lancaster 
 After the defeat at Bannockburn, the death of Gloucester and his army scattered, Edward had to hand power over to the Earl of Lancaster and the Lords Ordainers. Lancaster had kept back his own personal army in readiness for Edward's return and Edward had no option. Lancaster then replaced the Edward's supporters in key seats of power with his own Lancastrian supporters. 
  Nov 29 - Philippe IV, the Fair dies, and is succeeded by Louis X 
 Philippe, King of France, died of a hunting accident within the same year as the deaths of the Knight Templar leaders at the stake. His was succeeded by his eldest son Louis X. 
  Dec - Gaveston buried 
 Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish ceremony to bury his dead friend. 

1315 Lancaster in power 
 For the whole of 1315 Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster was in control of England and he embarked on a campaign to create a network of supporters in all positions of power. It seems that every section of society had Lancastrians that he could depend on. 
 See Also 
 Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) 

 A year of flood, famine and disease 
 Natural disasters this year across Europe leading to economic problems. 
 Wells Cathedral Central Tower 
 Work commenced on the central tower of Wells Cathedral. This needed strengthening and in 1338, new internal arches were added to support the weight. 
 1316 More famines and floods. 
 Natural disasters this year across Europe lead to economic problems. 
 Philippe V becomes King of France 
 Philippe, the brother of the previous King of France, became regent and then King of France. 
 See Also 
 Philippe (V, the Tall, King of France 1316-1322) 
John (I, King of France 1316) 
1318 Aug - Hugh Despenser is made Chamberlain 
 Edward II made Hugh Despenser his new Chamberlain. 
 See Also 
 EDWARD (II, King of England 1307-1327) 
Despenser, Hugh (the younger) 

 Aug 9 - Treaty of Leake 
 The Earl of Pembroke and his 'Middle Party' held discussions with the Earl of Lancaster during which it was agreed that a council should be formed that would advise the King, and that the King should not be able to act without the council's advice. Lancaster was also assured that he and his followers would be pardoned for any illegal acts that they may have performed during the time of their power. Lancaster agreed to the Treaty and met Edward to reconcile their differences. 
 S1319 Jun - Edward marches to free Berwick 
 The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north. 
  Sep 20 - Battle of Myton 
 While the best of the English army were at Berwick, a Scottish army lead by Sir James Douglas invaded Yorkshire. With an untrained army, the Archbishop of York William Melton tried to fight off the Scots but was defeated at Myton-in-Swalesdale. With the Scots threatening their lands in the north, the earls with Edward at Berwick abandoned the siege and returned to home. Queen Isabella who was in York at the time managed to escape to safety at Nottingham. 

1320 Apr - Declaration of Arbroath 
 Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication order under which Robert was still held for the death of John Comyn in 1306. 

1321 Qtr 1 - Despenser and the Marcher Lords 
 Hugh Despenser began obtaining lands in South Wales. He did this by exchanging estates he held in England and by obtaining grants from the king. He even obtained the Isle of Lundy. When the last male heir of the Marcher Lord Braose family died, Despenser was able to obtain the land that the family owned in and around Swansea. This angered the other Marcher Lords as they had customs that allowed land to pass into the hands of one another. The Marcher Lords threatened to start a civil war and it was agreed that a Parliament should be called to settle the matter. It was also agreed that Despenser was to be held in custody by Lancaster until the meeting but Despenser refused. 
  May 24 - Meeting at Pontefract 
 Lancester held the first of two meetings to gather support of Barons and the clergy to remove the Despensers from power. The second meeting at Sherborn-in-Elmet near York was held on June 28th. 
  Jul - Parliament at Westminster 
 Lancaster put a large amount of pressure on Edward to remove the Despensers from power. The Marcher Lords brought a force to London and threats were made that Edward would be removed from the throne if he did not comply. 
  Aug - The Despensers are banished 
 Both Despensers were banished from England. Hugh, the elder left without any fuss, but his son, Hugh the younger had different ideas and at first was given refuge by sailors of a Cinque Port and then started a spell of piracy. 
  Oct - Siege of Leeds Castle 
 Edward was forced to lay siege to Leeds Castle after an incident involving his wife Queen Isabella. The Queen had wanted to stay at the castle while travelling to Canterbury but was refused entry by the owners wife. The owner of the castle, who was not there at the time, was Lord Badlesmere, a supporter of Lancaster. When Isabella's men tried to gain access to the castle, some of them were killed. On hearing of the problem, Edward took an army to the castle and after a week broke the siege. Several of the Marcher Lords began to march into England in support of Lord Badlesmere. They only got as far as Kingston-upon-Thames when the siege ended. Edward then had every excuse to engage the Marcher Lords in their act of rebellion. 
 1322 Charles IV becomes King of France . Charles succeeds his brother Philippe as King of France. 
 Qtr 1 - Edward attacks the Marcher Lords 
 Edward advanced up the Severn Valley and crossed the river at Shrewsbury. Several of the Marcher Lords surrendered to the King without a fight. Lancaster had moved to his base at Pontefract. The King took time to take control the castles belonging to the Marcher Lords. 
  Jan - The Despensers return 
 The Archbishop of Canterbury had ruled that the banishment of the Despensers was illegal at the end of 1321 and as soon as they heard the news, the Despensers returned to England. 
  Mar 16 - Battle of Boroughbridge 
 Lancaster left his base at Pontract and headed north. At the bridge crossing the river Ure at Boroughbridge he was halted by an army lead by Andrew Harcley, the Earl of Carlisle. Harcley held the bridge against Lancaster's attacks and Lancaster was forced to surrender. Lancaster was taken back to Pontefract where Edward had taken control. 
 Mar 22 - Lancaster Executed 
 Edward finally had his revenge for the death of Gaveston when Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster was executed outside the walls of Pontefract castle. 
 May - Parliament at York 
 Edward was now back in control of the country and at the Parliament held at York the rebels who had fought against him were punished, many being executed for treason. The Ordinances against Edward were repealed and those who had supported Edward through the bad times were rewarded. The elder Hugh Despenser was made Earl of Winchester. The younger Despenser was given large amounts of land forfeited by the rebels. 
 S Jul - The Scots invade 
 The two year truce that had been agreed after the failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded the north of England. Aug - Edward advances into Scotland 
 In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland. The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive. 
  Oct - Edward almost captured 
 After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby and met the English army lead by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland. The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture. Isabella too escaped. 
 1323 Mar - Peace negotiations 
 Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had lead to the start of negotiations. Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle was executed as a traitor. 
  May - Treaty signed 
 A thirteen year peace was signed at York between Scotland and England. 
  Autumn - Mortimer escapes from the Tower 
 Mortomer of Wigmore escaped from the Tower of London.