George Ludlow and Edith Windsor had issue:
Lu12-1 Sir Edmund Ludlow
- m. 1st Bridget Coker, dau. of Henry Coker of Maypowder, Dorset. Bur.
Sept. 1587, Hill Deverhill, Wilts. m. 2nd Margaret Manning, dau. of Henry
Manning and Katherine Kirkener, widow Viscountess Howard of Binden, Wid.
of Thomas Howard Viscount Binden,
Lu12 Thomas Ludlow b about
1555 m. Jane Pyle
Lu12-3 Anne Ludlow, married Thomas Hall of London, son of Roger Hall
and Margaret, and had a daughter, Helen Hall.
Lu12-4 Margaret Ludlow, m Robert
Vaux of Odiham, Hants
Lu12-5 Jane Ludlow, m. Nicholas Bassett son of William Bassett and
Cecily Gore (The name Gore also appears
among the early Nicholas line).
Lu12-6 Mary Ludlow m Hugh Ryley
Lu12-7 Ursula Ludlow, m. 1st Rev.
Lu12-8 Philippa Ludlow, m
Thomas Zouch, son of Sir
George Ludlow was 24 when Henry VIII's break with Rome began, 31 at
the time of dissolution of the monasteries began and 39 when war against
Scotland and France began. As Esquire he is likely to have been called
to duty in the field.
This applies especially for Somerset's campaign:
Edward Seymour (c.1506-1552) had been created Earl of Hertford after
the marriage of his sister, Jane, to Henry VIII in 1536. He had been appointed
Lord High Admiral in 1543 and Lord Great Chamberlain in 1543. He became
Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector in February 1547. The estates given
to him following the dissolution of the monasteries included Allcannings,
evidently Robert Nicholas
Ni13 became his tenant there.
Edward Seymour's first problem was the war with Scotland, begun
during Henry VIII's reign. The French sent an army to Scotland in July
1547, which defeated the rebels at St Andrews (sentencing the Reformer,
John Knox to be a French galley-slave).
Somerset responded by organizing an army of 18,000 men and a fleet
of sixty ships under Edward Lord Clinton, and marching across the border
(4 September 1547).
The Scottish regent, James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran raised a large
but poorly equipped army and posted it in a strong tactical position -
his left flank defended by the Firth of Forth and the Esk river to the
front. The English initially occupied Falside Hill (Brae) but then moved
forward to bring their artillery into range.
For reasons not entirely clear, Arran decided to bring his forces across
the Esk and deployed them near Pinkie House. The English mounted a cavalry
charge against the Scottish flank but it was easily beaten off. Warwick's
force pressed forward and forced Angus to withdraw this isolated Arran's
men some of whom panicked a fled. The Highlanders under Huntly on the left,
came under fire from the guns of the English fleet and they too broke.
Somerset pushed his whole force forward and the retreat turned into
a rout. Fifteen hundred Scots were captured and still more killed - many
drowning in the Esk as they tried to flee the slaughter.
Somerset's victory seems to have given him the idea that he could conquer
all Scotland. He garrisoned a number of Scottish castles and made claims
However, in May 1548 a new French army arrived, and the English
were forced onto the defensive. Mary, Queen of Scots left in July to marry
the French Dauphin (later Francis II) and English control of Boulogne grew
In January 1550, Somerset was forced to agree to a peace that surrendered
Boulogne and left France in a dominating position in Scotland. The war
cost £300,000, and the debasement of the coinage continued.
Somerset's religious policies
Somerset was definitely committed to Protestant reform, although
more moderate than some. One of his first actions was to end the restrictions
on the printing of bibles imposed by Henry VIII.
The Parliament of 1547 on Somerset's direction repealed the laws
against heresy - in particular the Act of Six Articles passed during Henry
VIII's reactionary years. (This did not prevent Cranmer burning an Anabaptist,
Joan Bucher in May 1549 - he merely used common rather than statute law).
An Act of 1545 had condemned all chantries - priests funded to
say masses for the souls of the dead - and Somerset moved to have this
ratified and to seize their endowments.
There were doctrinal reasons for the abolition of chantries: Protestants
denied the existence of purgatory and so saw no point in praying for souls
irrevocably committed to hell or heaven. However, Somerset's main motive
seems to have been a desperate desire for money. Church property was an
easy target when, allies had to be rewarded and the Scottish wars financed.
In 1549, Acts were passed allowing priests to marry and ordering that
the laity should receive both bread and wine at communion. These were two
key planks in the Protestant platform. However, Somerset moved more slowly
over ceremonial changes, but did introduce a new English Prayer Book.
Occasional outbursts of violent iconoclasm by a few and demonstrations
of popular conservatism by others gave reasons for caution about abrupt
George Ludlow was High Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1567 and resided some
time at West Shireborne.
There is still a lot of research to do on George Ludlow's
activities and career, but the following timeline helps picture
the historical background:
1509 - Henry VIII, becomes king.
1513 - Battle of Flodden Field (fought at Flodden Edge,
Northumberland) in which invading Scots are defeated by the English under
their commander, 70 year old Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; James IV of
Scotland is killed.
1515 - Thomas Wolsey, Archbisop of York, is made Lord
Chancellor of England and Cardinal
1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther
nails his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences,
on the church door at Wittenberg 31st Oct. 1517.
1520 - Field of Cloth of Gold: Francois I of France meets
Henry VIII but fails to gain his support against Holy Roman Emperor, Charles
1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the
Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther
1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey
for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine
of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons
the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church
1530 - Thomas Wolsey dies
1532 - Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry
1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated
by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme
head of the Church of England
1535 - Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London
for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy
1536 - Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane
Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction
of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539.
1537 - Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the
future Edward VI
1539 - Dissolution of Glastonbury Abbey; buildings torched
and looted by king's men; Abbot Richard Whiting is executed by hanging
atop Glastonbury Tor.
1540 - Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations
by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine
Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason
1542 - Catherine Howard is executed
1543 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between
Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France
1544 - Henry VIII and Charles V invade France
1547 - Edward VI, King of England: Duke of Somerset acts
1549 - Introduction of uniform Protestant service in
England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer
1550 - Fall of Duke of Somerset:; Duke of Northumberland
succeeds as Protector
1551 -Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles
1553 - On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed
queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days;
Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England
(to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England
1554 - Execution of Lady Jane Grey
1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants
are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake
1558 - England loses Calais, last English possession
in France; Death of Mary I; Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne
Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal of Catholic legislation in England
1560 - Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish
reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland
1563 - The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment
of the Anglican Church
1564 - Peace of Troyes between England and France
1567 - Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen
of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell,
is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate; James VI, King of Scotland
1568 - Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is
imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle
1577 - Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis
Drake sails around the world (to 1580)
Society and economy
During the 1540s the price of food increased steeply, while wages
barely increased - indeed, in real terms they declined by about half. Increasing
population and the great debasement were the two main causes of price inflation.
The value of English currency abroad fell, but cloth exports remained
stagnant. A few large farmers benefited from the price increases, but the
mass of wage earners and all those on fixed incomes suffered severely.
Hunger and poverty led to social unrest, and many blamed enclosure
of land for inflation.
Somerset tried without success to persuade Parliament to take
steps against enclosure. The failure of these policies, poor harvests,
and the spread of plague combined to produce serious popular unrest from
Spring of 1549 onwards.
Rebellion broke out in Devon and Cornwall in 1549. The Cornish-speaking
populace resented the English liturgy that the new Prayer Book put in place
of the familiar Latin service. They were joined by conservative clerics
and some local gentlemen.
The rebels laid siege to Exeter (10 June) until dispersed by an army
of Italian and German mercenary troops in August. A wave of savage repression
followed, and many rebels were summarily hanged.
A minor rebellion in Oxfordshire was suppressed by hanging the
offending priests from the steeples of their own churches
In July 1549, a far more serious rebellion erupted in Norfolk. The Norfolk
rebels were Protestants and their main grievances were economic. Robert
Ket (Kett) a local landowner became the rebels' leader when he cooperated
in the tearing down of his own fences as well as others that had enclosed
common land. From his starting point in Wymondham, he was able to rally
Ket's forces camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich, captured the
city and repulsed the initial attacks of government forces. But in August,
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick forced the rebels out of Norwich and routed
the rebels nearby at Dussindale. Almost 3,000 rebel soldiers were killed
and fifty more were executed afterwards.
The Fall of Somerset
The rebellions of 1649 increased the discontent felt by many
important noblemen at Somerset's high-handedness. A cabal of Privy Councilors
- including John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of
Southampton - began to work for Somerset's overthrow.
Somerset took Edward VI to Windsor and tried to rally support, but could
find none. Both factions - the conservative. Catholic supporters of Mary,
and the Protestant reformers now led by Warwick - wanted Somerset stripped
Somerset was sent to the Tower and (although temporarily released
in February 1550) and never regained his power. He was re-arrested in October
1551 on flimsy charges of conspiracy, because Northumberland feared that
he was trying to organize a counter-coup. A jury refused to find Somerset
guilty of treason, but did convict him of felony (for fraudulent dealing
whilst chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster). He was executed 22 January
Warwick consolidated his power by ingratiating himself with Edward VI,
who personally sat in the Privy Council from August 1551.
In February 1550 Warwick became Lord President of the Council,
and in October 1551 (despite lacking any blood relationship to the royal
family) became Duke of Northumberland.