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|Clodius 'the long haired', King of the Franks d 445||
Europe 500 AD
It is assumed that Childeric and Clovis I, his son, were
commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda, and thus
subordinate to the magister militum. Clovis later turned against the Roman military
leaders and won a battle against Syagrius in 486/487. After this battle, Clovis had
Chararic, another Frankish king, imprisoned; he was later executed. A few years
later, Ragnachar, Frankish king of Cambrai, and his brothers were killed by Clovis.
By the 490s, Clovis had conquered all the Frankish kingdoms to the west of the River
Maas, leaving only the Ripuarian Franks.
|m c414 Basina, princess of Thuringia b 398, dau of Wedelphus of Thuringia|
|1.||Merovaeus, King of the Franks b c415, d 457|
|m Verica b c419|
|A.||Childeric I, King of the Franks b 436, d 481|
|m Basina, princess of Thuringia b c438, d 470|
|i.||Clovis I, King of the Franks d 511, became the first king of all Franks in 509, when he conquered the kingdom of Cologne. He had conquered the Kingdom of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius and expelled the Visigoths from southern Gaul at the Battle of Vouillé, thus establishing Frankish hegemony over most of Gaul, excluding Burgundy, Provence, and Brittany, which he left to his successors, the Merovingians, to conquer. Clovis divided his realm between his four sons in a manner which would become familiar, as his sons and grandsons in turn divided their kingdoms between their sons. Clovis' sons united to defeat Burgundy in 534, but internecine feuding came to the fore during the reigns of the brothers Sigebert I and Chilperic I and their sons and grandsons, largely fueled by the rivalry of the queens Fredegunda and Brunhilda. This period saw the emergence of three distinct regna (realms or subkingdoms): Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. Each region developed in its own way and often sought to exert influence over the others. The rising star of the Arnulfing clan of Austrasia meant that the centre of political gravity in the kingdom gradually shifted eastwards from Paris and Tours to the Rhineland.|
|a.||Thierry Theodoric I, King of Austrasia d 533|
|m Suavegotha dau of Sigismund of Burgundy|
|1||Theudebert I, King of Austrasia d 548||
development of the Frankish Empire 481 to 814 AD
The primary sources for Frankish military custom and armament are Ammianus
Marcellinus, Agathias, and Procopius, the latter two Eastern Roman historians
writing about Frankish intervention in the Gothic War.
|A||Theudebald, King of Austrasia d 555|
|m2. c496 Clotilda b c475, d 548, dau or niece of Chilperic, King of Burgundy|
|b.||Clodomir, King of Orleans d 524. . In the climate of the collapse of imperial authority in the West, the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingians and conquered all of Gaul except Septimania in the 6th century. The Salian political elite would be one of the most active forces in spreading Christianity over western Europe.|
|c.||Childebert I, King of Paris d 558. The Merovingian dynasty, descended from the Salians, founded one of the Germanic monarchies which replaced the Western Roman Empire from the fifth century. The Frankish state consolidated its hold over large parts of western Europe by the end of the eighth century, developing into the Carolingian Empire which dominated most of Western Europe. This empire would gradually evolve into France and the Holy Roman Empire.|
|d.||Clotaire I, King of Soissons, Austrasia and Neustria b 501 Reims Marne Champagne d 561
m1. Ingunde Radegund
|1||Chramm d 561|
|2||Sigebert I, King of Austrasia d 575
m Brunhild d 613, dau of Athanagild, King of the Visigoths
|A||Childebert II, King of Austrasia d 596||Both writers also contradict the authority
of Gallic authors of the same general time period (Sidonius Apollinaris
and Gregory of Tours) and the archaeological evidence. Scramasaxes and
arrowheads are numerous in Frankish graves even though the Byzantine historians
do not assign them to the Franks.
The Frankish military was not composed solely of Franks and Gallo-Romans, but also contained Saxons, Alans, Taifals, and Alemanni. After the conquest of Burgundy (534) the well-organised military institutions of that kingdom were integrated into the Frankish realm. Chief among these was the standing army under the command of the Patrician of Burgundy.
The Frankish realm was united again in 613 by Chlothar II, son of Chilperic.
Chlothar granted the Edict of Paris to the nobles in an effort to cut down
on corruption and unite his vast realm under his authority. After the militarily
successful reign of his son and successor Dagobert I, royal authority rapidly
declined under a series of kings traditionally known as rois fainéants.
By 687, after the Battle of Tertry, the chronicler could say that the mayor
of the palace, formerly the king's chief household official, "reigned."
Finally, in 751, with the approval of the papacy and the nobility, the
mayor Pepin the Short deposed the last Merovingian king, Childeric III,
and had himself crowned, inaugurating a new dynasty, the Carolingians.
|i||Theudebert II, King of Austrasia d 612|
|a||Emma of Austrasia
m Eadbald, King of Kent d 640
|ii||Thierry II, King of Austrasia d 613|
|a||Sigebert II, King of Austrasia d 613|
|B||Ingonde of Austrasia d 585
m 580 Hermengild II, King of West Goths d 13.04.586
|C||Chlodosinde of Austrasia
m1 Flace Autharis, King of Lombards
|m2. 594 Reckkared, King of West Goths d 06.601|
|3||Charibert, King of Paris d 567|
m Ethelbert I, King of Kent
|4||Guntram, King of Orleans d 592|
|5||Chilperic I, King of Soissons b c 523, d 10.584
m1. Audovera Galswintha d 567, dau of Athanagild, King of the Visigoths
|m2. Fredegund of Soissons b c543, d c597|
|A||Clotaire II, King of Austrasia and Neustria b c 584, d 628
m1. Haldetrude b c586, d c604
Europe 600 AD
|i||Dagobert I, King of Austrasia and Neustria b 602, d 19.01.637/8
m1. Nantilde b c614, d c642
|a||Clovis II, King of Neustria b c634, d 656|
|m Bathilde b c638, d c30.01.684/5|
|1||Clotaire III, King of Neustria and Austrasia d 670|
|2||Childeric II, King of Austrasia and Neustria d 673|
|m Blichilde dau of Sigebert II, King of Austrasia see 1 below|
|A||Chilperic II, King of Austrasia and Neustria d 720|
|i||Childeric III, King of Austrasia and Neustria d 752|
|3||Thierry III, King of Austrasia and Neustria b c652, d 698|
|m Clotilde b c654, d after 691|
|A||Clovis III, King of Austrasia and Neustria d 715||
Europe 700 AD
Soon the local levy spread to Austrasia and the less Romanised regions of Gaul.
On an intermediate level, the kings began calling up territorial levies from the
regions of Austrasia (which did not have major cities of Roman origin).
However, all the forms of the levy gradually disappeared in the course of the
seventh century after the reign of Dagobert I. Under the so-called rois fainéants, t
he levies disappeared by mid-century in Austrasia and later in Burgundy and Neustria.
Only in Aquitaine, which was fast becoming independent of the central Frankish
monarchy, did complex military institutions persist into the eighth century. In the final
half of the seventh century and first half of the eighth in Merovingian Gaul, the chief
military actors became the lay and ecclesiastical magnates with their bands of armed followers called retainers. The other aspects of the Merovingian military, mostly
Roman in origin or innovations of powerful kings, disappeared from the scene by the
|B||Childebert III, King of Austrasia and Neustria b c670, d 715/14.04.711|
|i||Dagobert III, King of Austrasia and Neustria b c687, d 19.01.715/6|
|The following connections are particularly suspect and may be removed in due course.|
|a||Thierry IV, Count of Autun and Toulouse b c711, d 02.746-7||
|m Aude/Aldane Martel b c713, dau of Charles Martel, Duke of Franks @2@ below||
|b||Bertrada of France b c704||
|m Claribert, Count of Laon see 3 below||
|C||Clothaire IV, King of Austrasia and Neustria|
|D||Bertrada Bertha Meroving a 720||
|m Martin of Laon b c660, d 680 see 4 below||
Europe 800 AD
Contemporary definitions of the ethnicity of the Franks vary by period and point of view. The word 'Frankish' quickly ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. Within Francia itself everyone north of the Loire seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-seventh century at the latest; 'Romans' were essentially the inhabitants of Aquitaine after that. Many in the East used the term "Franks" to describe or refer to Western Europeans and Roman Catholic Christians in general. It is unclear, though, to what extent different Western European groups described or referred to themselves as the Franks.
|4||Lothar III, King of Neustria and Austrasia|
|m2. Ragnatrud Regintrude b c608|
|b||Sigebert II, King of Austrasia d 656|
|m Immachilde or Chimnechild|
|1||Dagobert II, King of Austrasia d 23.12.679|
|Although some sources indicate that Dagobert had a successor, Clotaire, others report that he dspm. In the book 'The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail' ISBN 0-09-968241-9 was proposed the theory that Dagobert had, by a 2nd wife Giselle de Razes, a son Sigisbert who continued this line.|
|A ?||Clotaire IV, King of Austrasia d 719.|
|m Childeric II, King of Austrasia and Neustria d 673 see 1 above||The equipment of the Merovingian armies was
as varied as the composition. Magnates were known to provide their retainers
with coats of mail, helmets, shields, lances, swords, bows and arrows,
and war horses. The magnates' private armies resembled in armament those
of the Gallo-Roman potentiatores of the late Empire. The descendants of
Roman soldiers continued to use their service weapons. There was a strong
element of Alanic cavalry settled in Armorica which influenced the fighting
style of the Bretons down into the twelfth century. Local urban levies
could be reasonably well-armed and even mounted, but the more general levies
were composed of pauperes and inferiores who were mostly farmers by trade
and carried into battle whatever weapons they had at hand, often tools
or farming implements which made them militarily ineffective and thus rarely
called upon. The peoples east of the Rhine — Franks, Saxons, and even Wends
— who were sometimes called upon to serve wore less and more rudimentary
armour and carried more primitive weaponry, including spears and axes.
Few of these men were mounted and they were not affected very much by Roman
traditions and technologies.
Merovingian strategy was wound up in the militarised nature of the entire society. The Franks, unlike their Germanic neighbours to a great extent in this respect, were disposed to call annual meetings each 1 March (the so-called Marchfeld, because assemblies so large had to meet in large open fields) whereat the nobles in the presence of the king determined the military target or targets for the coming season of campaigning. This also served as a "show of strength" on behalf of the monarch, and a way for the monarch to retain the loyalty of common troops. In their civil wars with one another, the Merovingian kings concentrated on the holding of fortified places and cities (castra) and siege warfare was a primary aspect in all their endeavours. Siege engines of Roman type were used extensively and the greatest emphasis on tactics was tied to sieges. In offensive wars waged against external foes, the objective was typically the acquisition of booty or the enforcement of tribute. Only in the lands beyond the Rhine did the Merovingians seek to extend their political control over their neighbours.
Tactically, the Merovingians borrowed heavily from the Romans, especially regarding siege warfare. However, they were not bereft of innovation and there seems to be little remnant of tribal custom in their battle tactics, which were highly flexible and designed to meet the specific circumstances under which battle was being given. Subterfuge, as a tactic, was endlessly employed. Cavalry formed a large segment of the Merovingian military, but mounted troops readily dismounted when appropriate to fight on foot with the infantry. The Merovingians were capable of raising naval forces when necessary. The most significant naval campaign was waged against the Danes by Theuderic I in 515 and involved ocean-worthy ships. More regular was the use of rivercraft on the Loire, Rhone, and Rhine.
|b||Regintrude of Austrasia|
|m2. Bertrude b c590, d 620|
|ii||Charibert II, King of Aquitaine b c608, d 630/1|
|m Gisela of Gascogne b c610|
|b||Boggis, Duke of Aquitaine b c626, d c688|
|m Oda b c625 see 5 just below|
|1||Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine b c646, d 735|
|m Valtrude of Verdun b c650, dau of Walchigise see 6 below|
|A||Hunold, Duke of Aquitaine b c664||
|m3. c620 Sichilde b c585|
|iv||Oda b c625||
|m Boggis of Aquitaine b c626, d 688 see 5 just above||
||The language spoken by the early Franks is
known as Old Frankish. It is attested only in personal names, and is mostly
reconstructed from Old Dutch and loanwords in Old French and Latin. Though
it lent its name to a number of widely spoken dialects in modern Germany
(Ripuarian, Moselle-Franconian, Rhine-Franconian, East-Franconian, South-Franconian),
France (Lorrainian) and Luxemburg (Luxembourgish), these languages are
not directly related to the ancient language of the Franks.
There is no surviving work of literature in the Frankish language and perhaps no such works ever existed. Latin was the written language of Gaul before and during the Frankish period (e.g. Salic law). Of the Gallic works which survive, there are a few chronicles, many hagiographies and saints' lives, and a small corpus of poems.
The word "frank" has the meaning of "free" (e.g. English frank, frankly, franklin). This arose because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Echoes of Frankish paganism arise in the primary sources, but their meaning is not always clear. Modern scholars vary wildly about their interpretation, but it is very likely that Frankish paganism shared most of its characteristics with the other varieties of Germanic paganism. The mythology of the Franks was probably a form of Germanic polytheism, later adapted and supplanted in the wake of their incursion into the Roman Empire.
It was highly ritualistic and many daily activities centred around the multiple deities, chiefest of which may have been the Quinotaur, a water-god from whom the Merovingians were reputed to have derived their ancestry. Most of the pagan gods were associated with local cult centres and their sacred character and power were associated with specific regions, outside of which they were neither worshipped nor feared. Most of the gods were "worldly", possessing form and having concrete relation to earthly objects, in contradistinction to the transcedent God of Christianity.
Archaeologically, Frankish paganism has been observed in the burial site of Childeric I, where the king's body was found covered in a cloth decorated with numerous bees or flies. The symbolism of these insects is unknown.
|m Ansbertus of Moselle d 570 see 7 just below||
|m Amalaric, King of the Visigoths d 531|
|m Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths d 526|
|2.||Alberica d 491|
|m Argotta dau of Theodoric of Verona|
|i.||Ansbertus of Moselle d 570|
|m Blitildis dau of Clotaire I, King of the Franks see 7 just above|
|a.||Arnoldus Meroving b c562, d 601|
|m Ada of Schwabia b c564|
|1||St Arnolph of Heristal, Bishop of Metz b c582, d 641|
|m 611 Doda of Savoy|
|A||Clodulphe, Bishop of Metz, Duke of Austrasia b c615, d 718|
|i||Martin, Duke of Austrasia, 'Duke on the Moselle' dvp 710|
|ROYL table CCCLXIV shows Martin as ancestor of many families but those pedigrees are disputed by others, including GenEU.|
|ii||Kunza of Metz connection found on a web site||
|m Warinus, Count of Poitiers d 677||
||Some Franks converted early to Christianity,
like the usurper Silvanus in the 4th century. In 496, Clovis I, who had
married a Burgundian Catholic named Clotilda three years earlier, was baptised
into the (Trinitarian) Catholic faith by Saint Remi after a decisive victory
over the Alemanni at the Battle of Tolbiac. According to Gregory of Tours,
over 3000 of his soldiers were baptised alongside him. Clovis' conversion
to Catholicism would prove to have an enormous effect on the course of
European history, for at the time the Franks were the only major Christianized
Germanic tribe without a predominantly Arian aristocracy (their contemporary
rivals, the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians and Lombards, had converted
to Arian Christianity), and this led to a naturally amicable relationship
between the Church of Rome and the increasingly powerful Franks.
Though a sizeable portion of the Frankish aristocracy quickly followed Clovis in converting to Christianity, the conversion of the whole of the people under Frankish rule required a considerable amount of time and effort - in some places two centuries or more. Early efforts towards organized resistance were quickly squelched: the Chronicle of St. Denis relates that, following Clovis' conversion, a number of devout pagans, unhappy with this turn of events, rallied around Ragnachairus (or Ragnachar), a powerful figure who had played an important role in Clovis' initial rise to power. Though the text remains unclear as to the precise pretext, Clovis soon had Ragnachairus thrown in chains and then executed. As for the remaining pockets of resistance, they were overcome region by region - primarily due to the work of the quickly expanding network of monasteries.
The Frankish church of the Merovingians was shaped by a number of internal and external forces: it had to come to terms with an established Gallo-Roman Christian hierarchy entrenched in a culturally resistant aristocracy; it had to Christianize pagan Frankish sensibilities and effectively suppress their expression; it had to provide a new theological basis for Merovingian forms of kingship, which were deeply rooted in pagan Germanic tradition; it had to accommodate Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionary activities on the one hand and papal requirements on the other. The Carolingian reformation of monastic life and teaching and church-state relations can be seen both as the culmination of the Frankish church and a transformation of it.
|B||Angelicus or Ansegisel or Ansigise, Mayor of Austrasia b 602, d 685/694|
|m Begga of Landen d 698, dau of Pepin I, Mayor of Austrasia see 8 below|
|i||Pepin II of Heristal, Mayor of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy d 714|
|a||Grimoald, Mayor of Austrasia d 714|
|m Theodelinda dau of Radbod|
|b||Drogo of Champagne d 708|
|m2. Alphais dau of Childebrand or Plectrudis|
|c||Charles Martel, Mayor of Austrasia, Duke of the Franks b 689, d 22.10.741|
|m1. Rotrude/Chrotrude b c690, d c724, dau of St. Leutwinus||The increasing personal wealth of the Merovingian
elite allowed the endowment of many monasteries, such as those of the Irish
missionary Saint Columbanus. The fifth, sixth and seventh centuries saw
two major waves of hermitism in the Frankish world, a movement which was
eventually reorganised by legislation requiring that all monks and hermits
follow the Rule of St Benedict.
The period of Frankish rule saw the gradual replacement, always pushed for by Rome, of the Gallican rite of the Gallo-Roman church with the Roman rite; this does not seem to have stirred passions outside the clergy.
The Church seems to have had a somewhat uneasy relationship with the Merovingian kings, whose claim to rule depended on a mystique of royal descent that the Church had not yet come to terms with, and who tended to revert to the polygamy of their pagan ancestors. When the mayors took over, the Church was supportive, and an Emperor crowned by the Pope was much more to their liking.
|1||Hiltrude d 754|
|m 741 Odilo I of Bavaria d 748|
|2||Carloman, Mayor of Austrasia b c715, d 754|
|A||Drogon d 747|
|B||Bernard, Count de St. Quentin d c784|
|m _ of Laon|
|i||Gondres||Very little is preserved in the way of Frankish
architecture of the Merovingian period. The works of Gregory of Tours praise
the churches of his day, which mostly seem to have been timber-built, with
larger examples using the basilica plan, but the most completely surviving
example of Merovingian architecture is a baptistery dedicated to Saint
John in Poitiers. It is a small building with three apses, now much rebuilt,
essentially continuing Gallo-Roman style. In the South of France a number
of small baptistries have survived, as separate baptistries fell permanently
out of fashion in later periods, so they were not updated as the main churches
What is preserved of the visual and plastic arts largely consists of archaeological finds of jewellery (such as brooches), weapons (such as swords with decorative hilts), and apparel (such as capes and sandals) found in grave sites, such as the famous grave of the queen Aregund, discovered in 1959, or the Treasure of Gourdon, deposited soon after 524. Not many illuminated manuscripts survive from the Merovingian period, though the few that do, like the Gelasian Sacramentary, contain a great deal of zoomorphic representations. Compared to the similar hybrid works of Insular art from the British Isles, Frankish works in all these media show more continuing use of late Antique style and motifs, and a lesser degree of skill and sophistication in design and manufacture. The numbers surviving are so small, however, that the best quality of work may not be represented.
The work of the main centres of the Carolingian Renaissance represents a great transformation from that of the earlier period, and has survived in far greater quantity. The visual and literary arts were lavishly funded and encouraged by Charlemagne, using imported artists where necessary, and Carolingingian developments were in many areas decisive for the future course of Western art.
The main surviving monument of Carolingian architecture is the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, which is an impressive and confident adaptation of San Vitale, Ravenna, from where some of the pillars were brought. Many other important buildings can be largely reconstructed, such as the monasteries of Centula or St Gall, or the old Cologne Cathedral, now rebuilt. These were now large structures and complexes with a distinctive and sophisticated style, including an emphasis on the vertical and the frequent use of towers.
Carolingian illuminated manuscripts and ivory plaques survive in reasonable numbers, and now approach those of Constantinople in quality, as was certainly the intention.
|m Pepin of Italy d 773, d 08.07.810|
|m Girard, Count of Paris||
|3||Landres of Hesbaye|
|m Sigrand, Count of Hesbaye Hesbania|
|The cultural and linguistic descendants of the Franks, the modern Dutch-speakers of the Netherlands and Flanders seem to have broken with this endonym around the 9th century. By this time Frankish identity had changed from an ethnic identity to a national identity, becoming localized and confined to on the one hand the modern Franconia and on the other hand the French province of Île-de-France, originally the Western Franks' seat of power.|
|A||Gunderland, Count of Hesbaye Hesbania|
|i||Ingerman, Count of Hesbaye Hesbania|
|m Hedwig of Bavaria|
|a||Irmengarde of Hesbaye||
|m Louis I 'the Fair' or 'the Pious', King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor b 778, d 20.06.840||
|4||Auda/Alane Martel b c713||
||Like other Germanic peoples, the legal models
of the Franks were originally housed only in the memory of designated specialists,
rachimburgs, parallel to Scandinavian lawspeakers. By the time codes
began to be written down in the sixth century, there persisted two basic
legal subdivisions within the Frankish nation: Salian Franks were subject
to Salic law, Ripuarian Franks to Ripuarian law. Gallo-Romans south of
the Loire River and the clergy remained subject to traditional Roman law.
Germanic law was overwhelmingly concerned with private law, which protects
individuals, over public law, which protects the interest of the state.
According to Michel Rouche, "Frankish judges devoted as much care to a
case involving the theft of a dog as Roman judges did to cases involving
the fiscal responsibility of curiales, or municipal councilors
Because the Frankish kingdom dominated Western Europe for centuries, terms derived from "Frank" were used by many in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and beyond as a synonym for Roman Christians (e.g., al-Faranj in Arabic, farangi in Persian, Frenk in Turkish, Feringhi in Hindustani, and Frangos in Greek). See also Thai ????? Farang. During the crusades, which were at first led mostly by nobles from northern France who claimed descent from Charlemagne, both Muslims and Christians used these terms as ethnonyms to describe the Crusaders. Another term with similar use was "Latins" (cf. the Latin Empire). This usage is often followed by modern historians, who call Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean "Franks" or "Latins" regardless of their country of origin. Compare with Rhomaios, Rûmi ("Roman"), used for Orthodox Christians. Catholics on various islands in Greece are still referred to as ???????, "Frangoi" (Franks). Examples include the naming of a Catholic from the island of Syros as "Frangosyrianos" (??). The term Frangistan was used by Muslims to refer to the land where the Crusaders came from, i.e. Christian Europe.
Mediterranean Lingua Franca ("Frankish language") was a pidgin spoken among "Franks" and Muslims in the Mediterranean ports.
|m Thierry IV, Count of Autun and Toulouse b c711, d 02.746-7 see 2 above||
|5||Pepin 'the Short', King of the Franks b 714, d 24.09.768|
|m 740 Bertha b c720, d 12.07.783, dau of Claribert, Count of Laonsee 9 below|
|A||Charlemagne, King of the Franks, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire d 814||
|B||Carloman, joint King of the Franks d 771|
|C||Gisela, Abbess of Chelles|
|i||Roland of Ingelheim|
|a||Juliana of Ingelheim||
|m Charles, King of the East Franks, Duke of Ingelheim b 772, d 04.12.811||
|D||Redburh or Redburga possibly of this generation||
|m Egbert, King of Wessex b c775, d 839||
|m2. Suanahilde or Swanhilde or Sonichilde|
|6||Griffon, Duke of Bavaria d 753|
|7||Bernhard b c700|
|A||Chrothais/Theitrade/Gondres b 780|
|m Pepin I, King of Italy and the Lombards b 773, d 08.07.810|
|B+||other issue - Adalhard, Wala|
|8+||other issue - Remigius of Rouen, Hieronymus|
|ii||Martin of Laon b c660, d 680|
|m Bertrada Bertha Meroving a 720, dau of Thierry III, King of Austrasia and Neustria see 4 above|
|a||Caribert or Claribert or Charibert or Heribert, Count of Laon b c690|
|m Bertrada of France b c704, dau of Dagobert III, King of Austrasia and Neustria see 3 above|
|1||Garnier de Reims b c716, d 736this connection given on various web sites||
|m Rolande de France||
|2||Bertha of Laon b c720, d 12.07.783||
|m Pepin 'the Short' , King of the Franks b 714, d 24.09.768 see 9 above||
|C||Walchigise b c611|
|i||Valtrude of Verdun b c650||
|m Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine b c646, d 735see 6 above||
|2||Itta of Metz b c597, d 652|
|m Pipin I, Mayor of Austrasia, Duke of Brabant b c591, d 639|
|Pipin was son of Carolomannus, Mayor of Austrasia b c570, d c615, son of Charles, Count of Brabant.|
|A||Grimoald, Mayor of Austrasia d 656|
|B||Begga of Landen d 698||
|m Angelicus or Ansegisel or Ansigise, Mayor of Austrasia d 685 see 8 above||
|b.||Gertrudis d 615|
|m Richemores, a Duke of Franks|
|m Eggo d 646, Majordomus||
1 ROYL table CCCLXIV and others; HOLDT; 'Mathematical'.
2 Debrett's 'Kings and Queens of Europe' by David Williamson. Published by Webb & Bower in 1988. ISBN 0-86350-194-X.
3 'The Kingdom of the Franks', secondary title 'North-West Europe before Charlemagne', by Peter Lusko, published by Thames and Hudson Limited 1971 ISBN 0-500-57003-5.
4 'The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History', Volume I, by C.W. Previte-Orton, Cambridge University Press, 1955.
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