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|Born: about 1045
Married: 1st Gladys (Gwaladus) daughter of (Verch) Rhiwallon ap Conwyn, Prince of North Wales (?Iorwerth Drwyndwn) and x
Acceded to Keeper of the Forests: 1100
|Notes: Some sources show he married Beatrice and some Gladys daughter of the Prince of North Wales. Listed in the Domesday Book 1087. Fitzother was not Constable of Windsor Castle as Windsor was a royal forest until 1066 when William I started construction of Windsor Castle. At the time of the Survey in 1086, Walter Fitzother held a compact group of manors as tenant-in-chief of the King in the counties of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Middlesex, and Surrey. He also held Winchfield in Hampshire from Chertsey Abbey and a royal manor and some woodlands at Windsor. The transfer of Pembroke Castle to Gerald de Windsor indicates that both William and Gerald were sons by Gladys.|
|Walter and Gladys had issue:
(Wi27) William Fitzwalter de Windsor b c 1070 d c 1160
|The sources indicate that Walter was the first in the line to assume
the name Windsor, although construction of the castle itself was not begun
until he was already a man and only finished in the original version near
the end of his life.
Walter was a knight in the King's private retinue, and, when in 1070 William began the building of Windsor Castle, Walter was put in charge of its defense, and later became the first Constable of Windsor. Under the Norman kings, as with the kings of France, the Constable was the principal officer of the royal establishment, and was responsible for the defense of the establishment, by the knights stationed there. It was this position that conferred the name 'Windsor' upon his sons. Above is an artist impression of the appearance of the original Windsor Castle.
Windsor was built by William to control the middle reaches of the River Thames, and together with other castles, each a day's march apart, to keep open the route from London to the south coast, and thence to Normandy. Since Walter was a young man in 1070, to have been given such responsibility, shows the great respect felt for him by William.
Soon after 1070, Walter also had the important post of Warden of the King's forests in Berkshire. Although generally associated with hunting, the main recreation of the Royal household, the position was a military one, since the forests were subject to regular patrolling, as a precaution against enemies of the King. They were also regarded as the main source of provender for armies on the move, or those stationed at strategic castles.
The mill at Poyle has the longest continuous history. A mill was attached to Poyle manor in the 13th and 15th centuries, (fn. 15) and evidently passed with the manor to Andrew Windsor, since it was alienated by the Crown in 1612 as part of his former property. (fn. 16) In the 15th and 16th centuries it comprised two mills under one roof. In 1636 it was a paper-mill employing twelve men. (fn. 17) In the 18th century it came into the hands of the Bullock family, first as lessees and then as owners. (fn. 18) Henry Bullock (d. 1760), the first of the family to work the mill, and his sons were leather-dressers and used it primarily as a leathermill, though they also made paper. (fn. 19) They acquired other property in Poyle but sold the mill in the early 19th century. (fn. 20) By 1807 it was worked by William East and Richard Ibbotson, and Ibbotson & Sons later acquired the freehold. (fn. 21) The Ibbotsons used it at first for making paper and later for leather and asbestos board. (fn. 22) From 1890 it passed through various hands, being used in turn for asbestos, fibre, flock, artificial manure, and bricks. (fn. 23) The mill building was pulled down in the 20th century and its site was occupied in 1956 by the factories of Graviner (Colnbrook) and the Wilkinson Sword Co. There was then still a weir on the river at the site. (fn. 24)
In the Middle Ages many mills which cannot be identified were mentioned as being in Stanwell. None of them belonged to the lord of Stanwell manor. (fn. 25) One of them was held successively by Richard Peacock and his son John in the 14th century; 'Peacock's mill' was in existence in the early 17th century. (fn. 26) A second mill was acquired in the 15th century by Richard Bulstrode, (fn. 27) and a mill was attached to Edward Bulstrode's estates in 1598. (fn. 28)
In 1385 John Donet was presented for building a mill over a common footpath in Stanwellmoor. (fn. 29) Donet's mill passed to Thomas Windsor in 1472. (fn. 30) It therefore may have been the same as North Mill, which was held by the Crown in the 16th century, (fn. 31) and granted to Lord Knyvett in 1612. (fn. 32) North Mill may in turn be identifiable with Upper Mill, mentioned in 1630, (fn. 33) which was itself presumably the same as the 18th-century Upper Mill in Horton Road. This was called the New Mill about 1771, (fn. 34) but it may then have been recently rebuilt. It was a paper-mill in the 18th century and belonged to the lord of Stanwell manor. (fn. 35) Its 17th-century history is uncertain: the moieties of Stanwell manor each owned a mill, (fn. 36) and there was an independently owned paper- and corn-mill from c. 1610 to 1652. (fn. 37) It employed a journeyman as well as the miller's family in 1636. (fn. 38) The Upper Mill changed from paper to corn at the very end of the 18th century and at about the same time it was sold by the lord of the manor. (fn. 39) It continued to be used under various ownership as a corn-mill until the 20th century, and in the late 19th century was powered by steam as well as water. (fn. 40) By 1956 the mill had been used for at least 20 years for the manufacture of medicines, and until about 1950 was driven by water. Although electric power was thereafter used, the mill wheel and machinery were still there in 1956. Part of the building was damaged by a bomb in the Second World War. (fn. 41)
By the late 18th century the Lower Mill was in existence: (fn. 42) in fact it probably existed much earlier and may have been one of the two 17th-century mills held by the lords of Stanwell manor. It stood at the weir in Leylands Lane where this crosses the Colne, a few hundred yards downstream from the Upper Mill. (fn. 43) It was used as a corn-mill and appears to have been managed by the same miller as the Upper Mill from the mid-19th century (fn. 44) until it was demolished between about 1886 and 1896. (fn. 45)
By 1791 Edmund Hill owned a gunpowder-mill on the
Colne about 550 yards south-west of Hithermoor Farm. (fn.
46) Between 1832 and 1844 it passed from Hill's successor to Messrs.
Curtis & Harvey, who had already been working it for some years. (fn.
47) By 1896 it was a snuff-mill and soon after became a corn-mill,
and remained one until it was burnt down in 1925. In 1956 a house close
by marked its site. (fn. 48)
|9||Dom. Bk. (Rec. Com.), i. 130a.|
|10||The Colne and its branches and their respective mills in 1641 and 1725 are shown in B.M. Maps 1027, c. 30 and ibid. 1240 (53, 55); see also p. 33.|
|11||For references to mills not identified or discussed below, see e.g. C.P. 25(1)/149/52/329; /151/71/462; /151/81/151; C.P. 25(2)/27/178/12; /692/3 Chas. II Trin. For 'atte Mills' see, e.g. Feet of F. Lond. and Mdx. ed. Hardy and Page, i.|
|13||B.M. Add. MS. 20216, ff. 4d. 11.|
|14||Hist. MSS. Com. 13th Rep. pt. 5, Ho. of Lords, 498.|
|15||C 133/89/5; C 139/10/8; C.P. 25(1)/152/98/76.|
|17||M.R.O., Acc. 249/820-1, 826, 829.|
|18||For its descent in the 17th and 18th cents., see M.R.O., Acc. 27/2 and Acc. 132/125.|
|19||Middleton, View of Agric. of Mdx. 438; M.R.O., Acc. 132/113, 137, 166; L.T.A. Mdx. 6691; Shorter, Paper Mills and Paper Makers in Eng. 1495-1800 (Paper Publics. Soc. vi), 214-15.|
|20||M.R.O., L.T.A. Mdx. 6700; see above, p. 39.|
|21||Guildhall MS. 9580/3, 20 June 1807; M.R.O. Stanwell Tithe Award.|
|22||Kelly's Dir. Mdx. (1890); see also p. 49.|
|25||See extents of manor cited above, p. 36, n. 97-98.|
|26||Year Bk. 17 & 18 Ed. III (Rolls Ser.), p. 209; B.M. Add. MS. 20216, f. 13.|
|27||Cal. Close, 1461-8, p. 367.|
|29||Public Works in Medieval Law, ii (Selden Soc. xl), 48.|
|30||C.P. 25(1)/151/79/105; Cal. Close, 1468-76, 228.|
|31||Cal. Pat. 1554-5, 296; E 123/23, f. 143.|
|32||Cal. S.P. Dom. 1611-18, 111.|
|33||Bodl. MS. Don c. 26.|
|34||B.M. Map 3465(4).|
|35||See docts. cited on p. 37, nn. 34, 36, and Shorter, Paper Mills, 215.|
|36||M.R.O., L.T.A. Mdx. 6681; see also ibid. F 34/248.|
|37||E 134/1652 East. 6, m. 3; C.P. 25(2)/574/1651 Mich.|
|38||M.R.O., Acc. 249/821, 827, 829.|
|39||M.R.O., L.T.A. Mdx. 6691-6727.|
|40||Ibid.; Stanwell Tithe Award; Kelly's Dir. Mdx. (1866-1906).|
|41||Personal observation and information from the staff.|
|42||M.R.O., L.T.A. Mdx. 6681.|
|43||M.R.O., Stanwell Tithe Award.|
|44||Ibid.; Kelly's Dir. Mdx. (1886-94).|
|45||Kelly's Dir. Mdx. (1866); O.S. Map 1/2,500 Mdx. xix. 7 (2nd edn.).|
|46||M.R.O., L.T.A. Mdx. 6694.|
|47||Ibid. 6719-27; Stanwell Tithe Award.|
|48||Personal observation and information from Mrs. Wooster, Stanwellmoor.|