|Born: about 1275, Wymondham, Norfolk of Bradenlove, Buckinghamshire,
Married: Julian Stapleton about 1294
|Sir Richard served in several parliaments for Berkshire & Middlesex, was summoned with other great men to attend the king at Berwick-upon-Tweed, well appointed with horse & arms, to march against the Scots, had livery of the manor of Stanwell in Middlesex & West-Hake-burne in Berkshire. Berwick's strategic position on the English-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its relatively great wealth led to a succession of raids, sieges and take-overs. Between 1147 and 1482 the town changed hands between England and Scotland more than 13 times, and was the location of a number of momentous events in the English-Scottish border wars. One of the most brutal sackings was by King Edward I of England in in August 1296 to receive formal homage from some 2,000 Scottish nobles, after defeating the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in April and forcing John I of Scotland (John Balliol) to abdicate at Kincardine Castle the following July. (The first town walls were built during the reign of Edward I.) The "homage" was not received well, and the Ragman Roll as it was known, earned itself a name of notoriety in the post-independence period of Scotland. Some believe it to be the origin of the term "rigmarole", although this may be a folk etymology. this set the precedent for bitter border conflict in the Scottish Wars of Independence.|
|Richard de Windsor and Julian Stapleton had issue:
Wi21 Richard de Windsor
(Wi21-2). William de Windsor
|In the 13th century Berwick was one of the most wealthy trading ports
in Scotland, providing an annual customs value of £2,190, equivalent
to a quarter of all customs revenues received north of the border. A contemporary
description of the town asserted that "so populous and of such commercial
importance that it might rightly be called another Alexandria, whose riches
were the sea and the water its walls". . Amongst the town's exports
were wool, grain and salmon, while merchants from Germany and the Low Countries
set up businesses in the town in order to trade.
The Scots also had a mint at Berwick, producing Scottish coinage. In contrast, under English rule, Berwick was a garrison town first, and a port second. In around 1120, King David I of Scotland made Berwick one of Scotland's four royal burghs, which allowed the town's freemen a number of rights and privileges.
Berwick had a mediaeval hospital for the sick and poor which was administered
by the Church. A charter under the Great Seal of Scotland, confirmed by
King James I of Scotland, grants the king's chaplain "Thomas Lauder of
the House of God or Hospital lying in the burgh of Berwick-upon-Tweed,
to be held to him for the whole time of his life with all lands, teinds,
rents and profits, etc., belonging to the said hospital, as freely as is
granted to any other hospital in the Kingdom of Scotland; the king also
commands all those concerned to pay to the grantee all things necessary
for the support of the hospital. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th
year of his reign."
Under the Treaty of Falaise the Scots were forced to hand Berwick over to Henry II in 1174 as part of the price for the freedom of William the Lion; it was subsequently restored to Scotland by Richard I under the Quitclaim of Canterbury in 1189. Having been effectively razed to the ground by King John in 1216, it was then taken by Edward I in 1272, and the town was chosen as the location for John Baliol's coronation as King of Scots in 1292. The subsequent rebellion of John Baliol forced Edward to retake the town in 1296 at which time he felt obliged to massacre the inhabitants. Edward later sought to make the town the capital of his new Scottish government, but the town fell to William Wallace in 1297, although the castle remained with the English. Edward I subsequently took the town once more in 1302 and was thus naturally chosen as the location for the display of one of the severed quarters of William Wallace after his execution on the 5th August 1305. In the following year Isabel, Countess of Buchan was allegedly suspended in a cage outside the castle walls as punishment for her part in the crowning of Robert the Bruce as king of Scots.