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Plantagenet

: Plantagenet of Cornwall, Plantagenet of England, Plantagenet of Normandy, Longespee Plantagenet of Salisbury, Plantagenet de Warenne of Surrey GS
The first to official use of "Plantagenet" as a family name was by Richard, 3rd Duke of York, about 1448. Plantagenet, the shrub plante called broom genisteae. The progenitor of the family, Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, liked to wear a sprig of "plantagenet" in his bonnet as a personal emblem when he called for Maud, the "Empress" and Henry's sole survivng heir, to escort her from Germany back to England. Tradition has it that she called him by this distinguishing sign "de Plantagenet" in her Norman French, probably just to kid him, as she probably did their children, so the name was unofficially used forever after.
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Pl26 Geoffrey V "Plantagenet", Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy b 23.08.1113, d 07.09.1151
m. Matilda or Maud, 'The Empress', Queen of England b 1102, d 10.09.1167/69, dau of Henry I 'Beauclerc', King of England was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland also known as Edith. Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland. Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England. Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester, but one, John Fletcher 1990, considers the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire. When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor; at nine, she was sent to Germany to begin training for the life of Empress consort. The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany. It is even believed that after a time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent in his absence. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Hermann of Tournai maintains that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while. Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress" from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope — which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporarily, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.
In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship, which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry. Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William the Conqueror of Normandy; but her paternal line gave her seniority in right of succession over his maternal line.
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" — a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy. Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons including Stephen of Blois were sworn several times to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.
Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, the Empress Matilda, age 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou, a man eleven years her junior, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to his father the Count of Anjou — which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. Matilda called Geaoffrey "Plantagenet" from the broom flower planta genista which he had adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.
Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry, was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son Geoffrey, Count of Nantes. A third son William X, Count of Poitou was born in 1136.
When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its legally appointed heir. He usurped the legitimate power in England and was proceeding to do the same in Normandy.
But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy, and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France.
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England, but her cousin, Stephen of Blois, a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda, was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.
Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.
Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London, the city was ready to welcome her and support a coronation. However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved. On 24 June 1141, she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, Matilda's half-brother, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford, supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy, following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou. Not all hope was lost. Matilda's first son, Henry, was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford.
Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou, were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.
Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."
Pl25. Henry Plantagenet, King Henry II of England b 05.03.1133, d 06.07.1189 began an unbroken tradition of horse breeders down to many of his more recent descendants.
m. 11.05.1152 Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine b 1122, d 31.03.1204, dau of William/Guillaume VIII/X, Duke of Aquitaine
Pl24-1 William Plantagenet b 17.08.1152, d 1156
Pl24-2 Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy b 28.02.1155, d 1183
m. 1160/1172 Marguerite de France, Countess de Vexin b 1158, d 1197
Pl24-3 Richard Plantagent, 'the lion-hearted', King Richard I of England b 08.09.1157, d 06.04.1199
m 1191 Berengaria of Navarre b c1163, d 1234, dau of Sancho VI 'el Sabio', King of Navarre
Pl24 Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Brittany b 23.09.1158, d 1186 Geoffrey was fifteen years old when he joined the first revolt against his father, and was later reconciled to Henry in 1174, when he participated in the truce at Gisors when Richard was absent and later, when Richard reconciled at a place between Tours and Amboise. Geoffrey prominently figured in the second revolt of 1183, fighting against Richard, on behalf of Henry the Young King.
Geoffrey was a good friend of Philip Augustus of France, and the two statesmen were frequently in alliance against King Henry. Geoffrey spent much time at Philip's court in Paris, and Philip made him his seneschal. There is evidence to suggest that Geoffrey was planning another rebellion with Philip's help during his final period in Paris in the summer of 1186. As a participant in so many rebellions against his father, Geoffrey acquired a reputation for treachery. Gerald of Wales said the following of him: He has more aloes than honey in him; his tongue is smoother than oil; his sweet and persuasive eloquence has enabled him to dissolve the firmest alliances and his powers of language to throw two kingdoms into confusion.
Geoffrey also was known to attack monasteries and churches in order to raise funds for his campaigns. This lack of reverence for religion earned him the displeasure of the Church and also of the majority of chroniclers who were to write the definitive accounts of his life.Geoffrey died on 19 August 1186, at the age of twenty-eight, in Paris. There are two versions of his death. The more common first version, is that he was trampled to death in a jousting tournament. At his funeral, a grief-stricken Philip was said to have attempted jumping into the coffin. Roger of Hoveden's chronicle is the source of this version; the detail of Philip's hysterical grief is from Gerald of Wales.
In the second version, in the chronicle of the French Royal clerk Rigord, Geoffrey died of sudden acute abdominal pain, which reportedly struck immediately after his speech to Philip, boasting his intention to lay Normandy to waste. Possibly, this version was an invention of its chronicler; sudden illness being God's judgement of an ungrateful son plotting rebellion against his father, and for his irreligiosity. Alternatively, the tournament story may be an invention, by Philip, to prevent Henry II's discovery of a plot; inventing a social reason, a tournament, for Geoffrey's being in Paris, Philip obscured their meeting's true purpose. Geoffrey was buried at Notre Dame Cathedral.
m 1181 Constance, Duchess of Brittany b 1161, d 05.09.1201
Pl23-1 Arthur Plantagenet, Duke of Brittany b 1187, d 1203
Pl23-2 Eleonore Plantagenet b 1184, d 1241
Mentioned in Collins 1741, vol i, Powlett of Bolton and presumably an illegitimate son of Geoffrey was ...
Pl=Pa23 William de Paulet of Leigh Paulet d 1242
Pl24 John Plantagenet, 'Lackland', King John of England b 24.12.1166, d 18.10.1216 horse breeder.
m1. 29.08.1189, div 1199/1200 Isabella, Countess of Gloucester b c1170, d 1217, dau of William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester
m2. 24.06.1200 Isabella d'Angouleme b 1189, d 31.05.1246, dau of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angouleme
Pl23 Henry Plantagenet, King Henry III of England b 01.10.1207, d 16.11.1272 horse breeder.
m. 14.01.1236 Eleanor of Provence b 1217/23, d 24.01.1291, dau of Raimund Berengar I, Count of Provence and Forcalquier
Pl22 Edward Plantagenet, 'Longshanks', King Edward I of England b 17.06.1239, d 08.07.1307
ancestors line E horse breeder.
m1. 18.10.1254 Eleanor of Castille b 1240/41, d 29.11.1290, dau of Fernando II of Castille and Leon
ancestors line W part
GHJSY
Pl21-1 Eleanor Plantagenet b 18.06.1269, d 29.08.1297
GS
m1 Alfonso III 'el Liberal', King of Aragon, Sicilty, etc b 1265, dsp 18.07.1291
m2. 20.09.1293 Henry III, Count of Bar d 1302 -1 Edward I, Count of Bar d 1336 m c 1310 Mary of Bourgogne dau of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy
-2 Joanne de Bar d 30.08.1361 m 25.05.1306 John Plantagenet de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey b 30.06.1286, dsp 30.06.1347
-1-1 Henry IV, Count of Bar d 1344 m Yolande, heiress of Cassel, Marle, etc b c1331, d 1395, dau of Robert, Count de Marle
-1-2 Eleanor de Bar d 1332
m 1329/30, sp Rudolf, Duke of Lorraine b 1320, d Crecy 1346
-1-1-1 Edward II, Count of Bar d 1352
-1-1-2 Robert I, Duke of Bar b 1342, d 1411
m 1364 Marie of France b 1344, d 15.10.1404, dau of Jean II 'le Bon', King of France
-1-1-2-1 Henry de Bar b c1362, dvp Nikopolis 1396
m Marie de Coucy, Countess of Soissons b 04.1366, d 1404/5, dau of Enguerrand VII de Coucy, Count of Soissons, Earl of Bedford
-1-1-2-1-1 Robert de Bar, Count of Marle and Soissons d Agincourt 1415
m 1409 Jeanne de Bethune d 1450
-1-1-2-1-1-1 Jeanne, heiress of Soissons b 1415, d 1462 GS
m 16.07.1435 Louis I, Count of Luxembourg-St. Pol b 1418, d 19.12.1475
GS

-1-1-2-2 Edward III, Duke of Bar d Agincourt 1415, 5th son
-1-1-2-3 Louis, Duke of Bar, Bishop of Verdun and Chalon, Cardinal d 1431
-1-1-2-4 Yolande de Bar d 1438
m 1380 Juan I, King of Aragon b 1350, d 1395 G
-1-1-2-5+ other issue - John, Philippe, Charles, Marie, Bonne, Yolande, Joanna
Pl21 Joan Plantagenet 'of Acre' b 1272, d 07/23.04.1307 was a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile 1241-1290 and horse breeder. Born on the Ninth Crusade Joan got her name from her birthplace, Acre, in Kingdom of Acre. It differentiates her from an earlier Joan born to the couple, who died in infancy. Joan of Acre was born while her Royal parents were traveling to the Middle East on the Ninth Crusade.
At least part of her childhood she spent in France with her maternal grandmother, Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu. She was betrothed as a child to Hartman, son of King Rudolph I of Germany, but he died in 1281 after drowning in the Rhine.
Marriage & Issue
On 30 April 1290, at Westminster Abbey, Joan married Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford. He was nearly thirty years her senior.
Following her husband's death in 1295, Joan clandestinely married Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, a knight in her household, in January 1297. Her father, King Edward I, was enraged by this lowly second marriage, especially since he was arranging a marriage for her to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy.
He had Monthermer thrown in prison, and Joan had to plead for the release of her husband. According to the St. Albans chronicler, she told her father, "No one sees anything wrong if a great Earl marries a poor and lowly woman. Why should there be anything wrong if a countess marries a young and promising man?" At last her father relented, released Monthermer from prison in August 1297, and allowed him to hold the title of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hereford during Joan's lifetime.
Joan died in childbirth on 7 April 1307 at the manor of Clare in Suffolk, England, a Clare family possession, and was buried with her stillborn child, 23 April 1307, at the Augustinian priory there. Miracles were said to occur at her grave, especially the healing of toothache, back pain, and fever. A fifteenth-century English chronicle reports that when her tomb was opened a century and more after her death, her body was found incorrupt, which was seen in the medieval period as a strong indication of sanctity. So far as is known, however, no process for her sanctification was ever undertaken.
Y
m1. 30.04.1290 Gilbert de Clare, 'the Red', Earl of Gloucester and Hertford b 02.09.1243, d 07.12.1295 Cl22-3 Gilbert de Clare, 7th/8th Earl of Hertford, 4th Earl of Gloucester b 10/1.05.1291, d Bannockburn 24.06.1314 m 29.09.1308 Maud de Burgh d 1320, dau of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster
Cl22-3-1 John de Clare b 03.04.1312, d 1312
Cl22 =23 =24 =25 Alianore de Clare b 1292 d 30.06.1337 m1 after 14.06.1306 Hugh Despencer, 'the younger', Lord Despencer d 11.1326 m2 c01.1328/9 William Zouche of Ashby, 1st Lord Zouche of Mortimer d 28.02.1336/7
Cl22-5 Margaret de Clare b c1292, d 13.04.1342 m2 1297 Sir Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Lord b by 1290, d 05.04.1325
A. Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron b 04.10.1301, d Sluys 24.06.1340
m Margaret d 05.1349, probably widow of Henry, Lord Theyes
i. Margaret de Monthermer b 14.10.1329, d 24.03.1394/5
m. Sir John de Montacute, 1st Lord Montacute a 1389
B. Edward de Monthermer of Warblington, Lord d unm by 03.02.1339/40 He fought in the Scottish campaign in 1335 and spent much of his life in service to his half-sister Elizabeth, who provided for him during his last illness and buried him next to their mother.
C. Mary de Monthermer b c1298In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife. D.Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury.
m. 11.1307 Duncan, 10th Earl of Fife b c1285, d 1353
Pl21-3. Margaret Plantagenet b 15.03.1275, d 1333 GJ
m 09 Jul 1290 John II, Duke of Brabant b after 1273, d 27.12.1312
GJ
Pl21 Elizabeth Plantagenet b 07.08.1282, d 05.05.1316
m1. 1297 John I, Count of Holland d 1299
m2 14 Nov 1302 Bo21 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, Earl of Essex, Constable of England b c1276, d 16.03.1321
Bo20-1 John de Bohun, b 23 Nov 1306, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England, m. 1st Alice Fitzalan (Fi) of Arundel about 11325, 2nd Margaret Basset, d 20 Jan 1335, successor to his father, as Earl of Hereford, Earl of Essex, and Lord High Constable. m1 Alice Fitz Alan, dau of Edmund Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, m2 Margaret Basset, dau of Ralph Basset, Lord Basset, of Drayton no issue. d 1335
Bo20-2 Humphrey de Bohun IX., successor to his brother as Earl of Hereford, Earl of Essex, and Lord High Constable, and Knight of the Garter. He was one of the great lords that assisted, in the 15th year of Edward III., at the celebrated feast and justs which the king then held at London in honor of the Countess of Salisbury, and, in the 20th year of the same monarch, attended the king to the relief of Aguilon, then besieged by the French. He was never married, and dying in 1361, his honors and estates reverted to his nephew, Humphrey.
Bo20-3 Edward de Bohun, successive primogeniturely to the honors.
Bo20 = Bo20-4 William de Bohun. See below. Earl of Northampton, was born about 1312. He was a personage of great eminence in the turbulent times in which he lived, and one of the gallant heroes of Cressy. In the parliament held at London, in the 11th year of Edward III., upon the advancement of the Black Prince to the dukedom of Cornwall, he was elected Earl of Northampton, on March 17, 1337, and from that period he appears the constant companion in arms of the martial Edward, and his illustrious son. At Cressy he was in the second battalia of the English army, and he was frequently engaged in the subsequent wars of France and Scotland. He was entrusted at different periods with the most important offices, such as ambassador to treat of peace with hostile powers, commissioner to levy troops, etc., and he was finally elected as a Knight of the Garter. m Elizabeth Badlesmere, dau of Bartholomew de Badlesmere and his wife Margaret Clare. Elizabeth was one of the co-heirs of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, and widow of Edmund de Mortimer.
Bo20-5 Edward de Bohun
Bo20-6 Alianore Bohun, m1 James Butler, Earl of Ormonde, m2 Sir Thomas Dagworth, Lord Dagworth.
  • Bo20 Margaret Bohun, m Hugh de Courtenay Co20, son of the Earl of Devon.
    Bo20-7 Agnes de Bohun m Robert de Ferrers, 3rd Lord of Chartley b 25.03.1309, d 28.08.1350
    Bo20-8 Edmund de Bohun
    Bo20-9 Hugh de Bohun
    Bo20-10 Mary de Bohun
    Bo20-11 Isabella de Bohun
  • Bo20-6-1 Humphrey de Bohun X., succeeded his uncle, Humphrey de Bohun IX, as 2nd Earl of Northampton, when only a minor, under the guardianship of Richard, Earl of Arundel. d 1372, in the thirty-second year of his age, leaving by his wife Joane FitzAlan Co19 Elizabeth de Courtenay, m Sir Andrew Lutterell Lu19
    Bo20-7-1 John de Ferrers, 4th Lord of Chartley b c10.08.1331, d 02.04.1367 m Elizabeth de Stafford b after 1332, d 07.08.1375/6, dau of Ralph, 1st Earl of Stafford
    Bo20-6-1-1 Eleanor de 1366 10/3/1399 England, Herefordshire, Hereford m Thomas Plantagenet
    Bo20-6-1-2 Mary de abt 1369 4 JUL 1394 m Henry IV King of England
    Pl21=23 Edward Plantagenet King Edward II of England b 25.04.1284, d 21.09.1327, 4th son horse breeder.
    m 25 Jan 1308 Isabella of France b 1295, d 22.08.1358, dau of Philip IV 'le Bel', King of Franceancestors line W part
    Pl22 = 20 Edward Plantagenet, King Edward III of England b 13.11.1312, d 21.06.1377 horse breeder.
    m. 24.01.1328 Philippa of Hainault b 24.06.1311, d 15.08.1369, dau of William III d'Avesnes, Count of Hainault and Hollandancestors line W part
    Pl21-1 Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, 'the Black Prince', Duke of Cornwall b 15.06.1330, d 08.06.1376
    m 10.10.1361 Joan Plantagenet, Countess of Kent b 29.09.1328, d 08.08.1385see below
    a. Edward Plantagenet b 27.01.1365, dvp 1372
    b. Richard Plantagenet, King Richard II of England b 06.01.1367, d 1400
    m1 1382 Anna of Bohemia b 11.07.1366, d 07.06.1394
    m2 1396 Isabelle of France b 1389, d 1409, dau of Charles VI, King of France
    p. Edith de Willesford name found on various web sites
    Pl21-1-3 Sir Roger de Clarendon d 1402 had issue see Smith05
    m. Margaret Fleming d 1382, dau of John Fleming, Lord de La Roche
    Pl21-2 Isabel Plantagenet b 16.06.1332, d before 07.10.1382
    GS

    m. 27.07.1365 Enguerand VII de Coucy b 1342, d 1397
    GS
    -1 Marie de Coucy, Countess of Soissons b 04.1366, d 1404/5 GS m Henri de Bar dvp 1396 GS
    -2 Philippe de Coucy m c10.1376, div 1387 Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, Duke of Ireland b 16.01.1361/2, dsp 1392
    Pl21-3 Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, Earl of Ulster b 29.11.1338, d 17.10.1368 served in Ireland 1362-6 horse breeder.
    m1 09.1342 Elizabeth de Burgh b 06.07.1332, d 10.12.1363, dau of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster
    Pl21-3-1 Philippa Plantagenet, Countess of Ulster b 16.08.1355, d after 1378 horse breeder.
    Y

    m after 1368 Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March b 01.02.1352, d 27.12.1381
    Y
    -1 Roger MORTIMER, 4th Earl of March, 6th Earl of Ulster, born 1374 Apr 11, died 1398 Jul 20; married ca 1388 Oct 7, as 1st husband, Lady Eleanor de HOLAND (Kent, E) (born ca 1373, died 1405 Oct 23
    -2 Sir Edmund MORTIMER, born 1377 Nov, died before 1411 May 13; married ca 1402 Nov, Katherine GLENDOWER (d before 1413 Dec 1 + 3 ch dy
    -3 Elizabeth MORTIMER, b 1371 Feb 12, d 1417 Apr 20; 1 before 1379 Dec 10, Henry PERCY, Lord Percy ("Hotspur") (son of Henry PERCY, 1st Earl of Northumberland) (died 1403 Jul 21); married 2nd, as 2nd wife, Thomas CAMOYS, 1st Baron Camoys, KG (cr 1383 Aug 20) (d 1419 Mar 28
    -1-1 Edmund MORTIMER, 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster, b 1391 Nov 4, d 19 Jan 1425 m1 ca 1415 Lady Anne STAFFORD (Stafford, E) d 20 Sep 1432
    -1-2 Hon. Roger MORTIMER, b 1393 Mar 24, d ca 1409/10
    -1-3 Lady Anne MORTIMER, b 1390 Dec 27, d Sep 1411 m ca 1406 May, as 1st wife, Prince Richard Plantagenet, 1st Earl of Cambridge (cr 1414 May 1, attainted 1415 Aug 5) (born ca 1376 Sep, died 1415 Aug 6).(5)
    -1-4 Eleanor MORTIMER, b ca 1395, d m between 1406 May 13 and 1409 Nov 20, Edward COURTENAY, Lord Courtenay (son of Edward COURTENAY, 3rd Earl of Devon) (b ca 1388, d 1418 May 1 vp
    -3-1 Henry PERCY, 1st Earl of Northumberland (cr 1416 Mar 16), born 1393 Feb 3, d 1455 May 22 m2 1414, as 2nd husband, Lady Eleanor NEVILLE (Westmorland, E
    -1-3-1 Richard Plantagenet, KG, 3rd Duke of York (cr 1385 Aug 6), 2nd Earl of Cambridge (restored probably 1426 May 19), 6th Earl of March, 8th Earl of Ulster, b 1411 Sep 20, d 31 Dec 1460 m before 1424 Oct 18, Lady Cecily NEVILLE (Westmorland, E) b 3 May 1415 d 31 May 1495
    -3-1-1
    -1-3-1-1 Henry Plantagenet of Hatfield, b 1441 Feb 10, d young.
    -1-3-1-2 Edward IV, King of England, born 1442 Apr 28, Rouen, proclaimed King 1461 Mar 4, expelled 1470 Oct 9, restored 1471 May 4, died 1483 Apr 9; married 1464 May 1, Elizabeth WOODVILLE (b ca 1437, d 1492 Jun 8
    -1-3-1-3 Edmund (Plantagenet), 1st Earl of Rutland (cr date unknown), b 1443 May 17, Rouen, died 1460 Dec 31.(13)
    -1-3-1-4 William Plantagenet b 1447 Jul 7, d young.
    -1-3-1-5 John Plantagenet b 1448 Nov 7, d young.
    -1-3-1-6 George Plantagenet KG, 1st Duke of Clarence (cr 1461 Jun 28), born 1449 Oct 21, died 1478 Feb 18; married 1469 Jul 11, Lady Isabel NEVILL (Warwick and Salisbury, E) (born 1451 Sep 5, died 1476 Sep 22
    -1-3-1-7 Thomas (Plantagenet), born ca 1450/51, died inf.
    -1-3-1-8 Richard III, King of England on the death of Edward V (see above), born 1452 Oct 2, died 1485 Aug 22; married 1472 Jul 12, as 2nd husband, Lady Anne NEVILL (Warwick and Salisbury, E) (born 1456 Jun 11, died 1485 Mar 16
    -1-3-1-9 Anne Plantagenet b 1439 Aug 10, d 1476 Jan 14; m1 before 1447 Jul 30 (div 1472 Nov 12, Henry HOLAND, 2nd Duke of Exeter (cr 1444 Jan 6) (b 1430 Jun 27, d 1475 Sep m2 1472/73, Sir Thomas ST. LEGER (d 1483 Nov
    -1-3-1-10 Elizabeth Plantagenet b 1444 Apr 22, d between 1503 Jan 7 and 1504 May 3; m before 1460 Oct, as 2nd wife, John DE LA POLE, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (cr 1448 Jun 2), 2nd Marquess of Suffolk (cr 1444 Sep 14), 5th Earl of Suffolk (cr 1385 Aug 6) (born 1442 Sep 27, died between 1491 Oct 29 and 1492 Oct 27
    -1-3-1-11 Margaret (Plantagenet), born 1446 May 3, died 1503 Nov 23 sp; married 1468 Jun 3, as 3rd wife, Charles, Duc de Bourgogne, KG (born 1433 Nov 20, died 1477 Jan 5).(21)
    -1-3-1-12 Ursula (Plantagenet), born ca 1453/54, died young
    -3-1-9-1 Lady Anne HOLAND, d 1467 m 1466 Oct Thomas GREY, 1st Marquess of Dorset (cr 1475 Apr 18) (b 1451, d 1501 Sep 20
    -1-3-1-2-1 Edward V, King of England, born 1470 Nov 4, died ca 1483 Jul.
    -1-3-1-2-2 Prince Richard Plantagenet KG, 1st Duke of York (cr 1474 May 28), 1st Duke of Norfolk and 1st Earl Warenne (cr 1477 Feb 7), 1st Earl of Nottingham (cr 1476 Jun 12), born 1473 Aug 17, died ca 1483 Jul; married 1478 Jan 15, Anne MOWBRAY, (8th) Countess of Norfolk (cr 1313 Jan 8), (11th) Baroness Mowbray (cr 1295 Jun 24), (12th) Baroness Segrave (cr 1295 Jun 24) (born 1472 Dec 10, died 1481 Nov 19).(7)
    -1-3-1-2-3 Prince George Plantagenet b 1477, d 1479 Mar.
    -1-3-1-2-4 Princess Elizabeth Plantagenet b 1465 Feb 11, died 1503 Feb 11; married 1486 Jan 18, Henry VII, King of England (born 1457 Jan 28, died 1509 Apr 21) (see below). For descendants see Ruvigny, Tudor Roll.
    -1-3-1-2-5 Princess Mary Plantagenet b 1466 Aug, died 1482 May 23.
    -1-3-1-2-6 Prince Cicely Plantagenet b 1469 Mar 20, d 1507 Aug 24 m1 between 1487 Nov 25 and 1488 Jan 1, John WELLES, KG, 10th Baron Welles (cr 1299 Feb 6; under attainder until 1485 Nov or Dec), 1st Viscount Welles (cr 1486 Feb 8) (born ca 1449, died 1499 Feb 9); m2 before 1504 Jan, Thomas KYME.
    -1-3-1-2-6-1 y KYME d young.
    -1-3-1-2-6-2 Hon. Anne WELLES, d inf.
    -1-3-1-2-6-3 Hon. Elizabeth WELLES, d inf.
    -1-3-1-2-6-4 x KYME d young.
    -1-3-1-2-7 Princess Margaret Plantagenet b 1472 Apr 10, d 1472 Dec 11.
    -1-3-1-2-8 Princess Anne Plantagenet b 1475 Nov 2, d 1511 Nov 23 m 1495 Feb 4 Thomas HOWARD, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (cr 1483 Jun 28), Earl of Surrey for life (cr 1514 Feb 1) (born 1473, died 1554 Aug 25).(9)
    -1-3-1-2-8-1 y HOWARD, stillborn.
    -1-3-1-2-8-2 Thomas HOWARD, Lord Howard, d 1508 Aug 3.
    -1-3-1-2-8-3+ Two other sons, stillborn.
    -1-3-1-2-9 Princess Catherine Plantagenet b ca. 1479 Aug 14, d 1527 Nov 15; m before 1495 Oct, William COURTENAY, 9th Earl of Devon (cr 1335 Feb 22) (born ca 1475, died 1511 Jun 9).(10)
    -1-3-1-2-9-1 Henry COURTENAY, 10th Earl of Devon, 1st Marquess of Exeter (cr 1525 Jun 18), b ca 1498, d 1539 Jan 9; married 1st, before 1515 Jun, Elizabeth GREY, (5th) Baroness Lisle (cr 1444 Jul 26) (born ca 1505 Mar 25, died ca 1519 Apr sp); married 2nd, Hon. Gertrude BLOUNT (Mountjoy, B) (died 1558 Sep 25).(11)
    -1-3-1-2-10 Princess Bridget Plantagenet b 1480 Nov 10, d 1517 a nun
    -1-3-1-8-1 Edward Plantagenet Prince of Wales, b 1473 Aug 24, d 1484 Apr 9
    -1-3-1-10-1 John DE LA POLE, 1st Earl of Lincoln (cr 1467 Mar 13, born ca 1462, died 1487 Jun 15 spvp; m Lady Margaret FITZALAN (Arundel, E) (fl. 1493).(17)
    -1-3-1-10-2 Edward DE LA POLE, died before 1485 Oct 8.
    -1-3-1-10-3 Edmund DE LA POLE, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, 3rd Marquess of Suffolk, 6th Earl of Suffolk (Dukedom and Marquessate surrendered 1493 Feb 26; attainted 1504 Jan), born 1471/72, died 1513 May 4; married before 1496 Oct 10, Margaret SCROPE (d 1515 Feb).(16)
    -1-3-1-10-3-1 Lady Elizabeth DE LA POLE, a nun.
    -1-3-1-10-4 Humphrey DE LA POLE, a priest, b 1474 Aug 1, d 1513 Feb unm.
    -1-3-1-10-5 William DE LA POLE, de jure (but for the attainder) 7th Earl of Suffolk, born ca 1478, died 1539 Oct or Nov, sp; married, probably 1497, as 3rd husband, Hon. Catherine STOURTON (Stourton, B) (died 1521 Nov 25).
    -1-3-1-10-6 Geoffrey DE LA POLE.
    -1-3-1-10-7 Richard DE LA POLE d 1525 Feb 24, Pavia, unm, styling himself Duke of Suffolk, and claiming the Crown of England.
    -1-3-1-10-8 Catherine DE LA POLE, died sp; married, as 1st wife, William STOURTON, 5th Baron Stourton (cr 1448 May 13) (born ca 1457, died 1524 Sep 17).(18)
    -1-3-1-10-9 Anne DE LA POLE, a nun.(19)
    -1-3-1-10-10 Dorothy DE LA POLE, a nun.(19)
    -1-3-1-10-11 Elizabeth DE LA POLE m Henry LOVEL, 8th Baron Morley (cr 1299 Dec 29) (b 1466, d 1489 Jun 13
    m2 28.05.1368 Violante Visconti b c1353, d 1386, dau of Galeazzo II Visconti of Milan
    Pl21 John Plantagenet 'of Gaunt', Earl of Richmond, Duke of Lancaster, Duke of Aquitaine, King of Castile b 24.06.1340, d 03.02.1399 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding.
    m1. 19.05.1359 Blanche Plantagenet b 25.03.1345, d 12.09.1369, dau of Henry Plantagenet, 4th Earl of Lancaster
    Pl20-1 Philippa Plantagenet b 31.03.1360, d 19.07.1415
    m. 11.02.1387 Joao I 'the False', King of Portugal b 11.04.1358, d 14.08.1433
    Pl20-2 Elizabeth Plantagenet b by 21.02.1364, d 24.11.1425 continued her father's tradition of horse breeding as did her daughter Constance Holand.
    m1. 1384 John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon, Duke of Exeter d 1400
    m2. sp Sir John Cornwall, Lord Fanhope d 1443
    Pl20-3 Henry Plantagenet 'Bolingbroke', King Henry IV of England b 30.05.1366, d 21.03.1412-3, 4th son continued his father's tradition of horse breeding.
    m1. Mary de Bohun d 04.07.1394, dau of Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, Hereford and Essex
    1 Henry Plantagenet, King Henry V of England b 09.08.1387, d 31.08.1422
    m. 02/3.06.1420 Catherine of France b 27.10.1401, d 03.01.1437/8, dau of Charles VI, King of France
    A Henry Plantagenet, King Henry VI of England b 06.12.1421, d c05.1471
    m. 22.04.1445 Margaret of Anjou b 1429, d 1482, dau of Regnier, Duke of Anjou, King of Sicily & Jerusalem
    i Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales b 13.10.1453, dspvp Tewkesbury 04.05.1471
    m. 08.1470 Anne Nevill d 16.03.1485, dau of Richard, Earl of Warwick
    2 Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence b 01.10.1388, dsp Beauje 22.03.1421
    m. 1411 Margaret Holand d 30.12.1429, dau of Thomas Holand, 2nd Earl of Kent
    3 John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford b 20.06.1389, dsp 15.09.1435
    m1. mcrt 15.05.1423 Anne of Burgundy d 14.11.1432, dau of John, Duke of Burgundy
    m2. 20.04.1433 Jaquetta d 30.05.1472, dau of Pierre I, Count of Luxembourg-St. Pol, de Brienne et di Conversano
    4 Humphrey Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester b 03.10.1390, dspl 23.02.1447 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding.
    m. 1428 Eleanor Cobham d 1454, dau of Reginald de Cobham, 3rd Lord of Sterborough
    partner unknown
    A Antigone Plantagenet continued her father's tradition of horse breeding as did her daughter, Elizabeth Grey and granddaughters Jana Anne and Margred Kynaston.
    m. Sir Henry Grey, 2nd Count of Tankerville d 1449
    5 Blanche Plantagenet
    m. 1402 Louis, Duke of Bavaria
    6 Philippa Plantagenet dsp
    m. 1405 Eric, King of Denmark
    m2. 1403 Joan of Navarre d 10.06.1437, dau of Charles II, King of Navarre
    Pl20-4.+ other issue - John b c1362, d c1365, Edward b c1365, d c1368, John b before 04.05.1366, d young, Isabel b c1368
    m2. 06.1371 Constanza, Queen of Castile b 1354, d 24.03.1394, dau of Pedro I 'the Cruel', King of Castile and Leon
    Pl20-8 Katharine Plantagenet b 1372, d 02.06.1418
    m. 1393/7 Enrique III 'el Doliente', King of Castile and Leon b 04.10.1379, d 25.12.1406
    Pl20-9 John Plantagenet b 1374, d 1375
    m3. 13.01.1396 Katherine de Roet ?Swynnerville b 1350, d 10.05.1403, dau of Sir Payne Roet
    Catherine had been John of Gaunt's mistress and bore his children before they married. The children were legitimized.
    Pl20=18 John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, Marquess of Somerset b 1372, d 21.04.1410 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding,
    m Margaret Holand d 30.12.1429, dau of Thomas Holand, 2nd Earl of Kent
    Pl17-1 Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset d 25.11.1418
    Pl17-2 Jane or Joan Beaufort d 15.07.1445
    J
    m1. 1423 James Stewart, King James I of Scots b 12.1394, d 21.02.1437 -1 Margaret Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1424–1445) married Prince Louis, Dauphin of Viennois (later King Louis XI of France)
    -2 Isabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1426–1494) married Francis I, Duke of Brittany
    -3 Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan (died 1465) married Wolfart VI van Borsselen
    -4 Joan of Scotland, Countess of Morton (c. 1428–1486) married James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton
    -5 Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (born and died 1430); Twin of James
    -6 James II of Scotland (1430–1460)
    -7 Annabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland married and divorced 1. Louis of Savoy, and then married and divorced 2. George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly
    -8 Eleanor Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1433–1484) married Sigismund, Archduke of Austria.
    m2 Sir James Stewart "the Black Knight of Lorn" -1 John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (c. 1440 – 1512) James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan (d. 1498/1500) Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Moray (c. 1443 – 1501)
    Pl17-3 John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset b before 25.04.1404, d 27.05.1444 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding.
    m. Margaret Beauchamp dau of John de Beauchamp, 3rd Lord of Bletsho
    A Margaret Beaufort b 31.05.1443, d 1509 continued her father's tradition of horse breeding as did her son Henry VII
    H
    m1. div John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk
    m2. 1455 Edmund Tudor of Hadham, 1st Earl of Richmond d 1456
    H
    Their son Henry became King Henry VII of England.
    m3. Sir Henry Stafford
    m4. sp Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby d 29.07.1504
    partner unknown
    B Thomasine or Tacine
    m Sir Reginald Grey, 7th Lord of Wilton d 22.02.1493/4
    Pl17-4 Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Perche b 1405, d 1432
    Pl17 Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset b 1406, d 22.05.1455
    Although Edmund inherited the earldom of Somerset from his brother John, his dukedom was a new creation.
    He continued his father's tradition of horse breeding.
    m. Alianore Beauchamp dau of Richard Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick
    Pl16-1 Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset b 26.01.1436, d 16.05.1464
    partner: Joane Hill
    i Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester b c1460, d 15.04.1526
    m1. 02.06.1492 Elizabeth Herbert d 1514, dau of William Herbert, Earl of Huntingdon
    m2. Elizabeth West dau of Thomas West, Lord de la Warr
    m3. sp Eleanor Sutton dau of Sir Edward Sutton, Lord Dudley
    Pl16-2 2 sons - Edmund b 1438, d 06.05.1471, John d Tewkesbury 04.05.1471
    Pl16-3 Eleanor Alinaore Beaufort d 16.08.1501 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding .
    m1. 04.1458 James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy of Ireland b 24.11.1420, dsp 01.05.1461
    m2. Sir Robert Spencer of Spencer Coombe
    i Margaret Spencer continued her mother's tradition of horse breeding.
    m. Thomas Cary of Chilton Foliat d before 21.06.1536
    ii Catherine Spencer
    m Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland b 13 Jan 1478 d 19 May 1527
    Pl16-4 Joane Beaufort d 11.08.1518
    m1. 06/7.1478 Robert St.Lawrence, Lord Howth, Lord Chancellor of Ireland b c1435, d 1486
    m2. Sir Richard Fry
    Pl16 Anne Beaufort continued her father's tradition of horse breeding as did her daughter Anne Paston.
    m. Sir William Paston
    Pl16-6 Margaret Beaufort
    m1. Humphrey de Stafford, Earl of Stafford dvp St. Albans 22.05.1455
    m2. Sir Richard Dayrell of Lillingstone Dayrell
    i Margaret Dayrell
    m. by 1483 James Touchet, 7th Lord Audley b c1463, d 28.06.1497
    Pl16-7 Elizabeth Beaufort d before 1492
    m. Sir Henry Lewes
    Pl17-6 Margaret Beaufort
    m. Thomas Courtenay, 5th Earl of Devon b 1414, d 03.02.1458
    Pl20-11 Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Lincoln then of Winchester, Cardinal, Lord Chancellor of England b 1375, d 11.04.1447 continued his father's tradition of horse breeding
    Thanks to a site visitor MF, 08.02.08 who drew our attention to the fact that the mother of Henry's daughter Jane was probably the following Alice FitzAlan. Wikipedia reports that Henry had an illegitimate daughter called Jane born in 1402 but expresses some scepticism of the view that Alice was her mother.
    p. Alice FitzAlan dau of Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, widow of John Cherleton, Lord Powis who d. 1401
    1 Jane Beaufort continued her mother's tradition of horse breeding as did her son Henry Stradling.
    m. Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat's a 1422
    Pl20-12 Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter b c01.1377, d 27.12.1417/1426
    m. before 15.02.1403/4 Margaret Nevil dau of Sir Thomas Nevil of Horneby
    1 Henry Beaufort
    Pl20 Joan Beaufort b 1379, d 1440 continued horse breeding as did her daughters Elizabeth and Mary Ferrers and granddaughter Eleanor Greystoke.
    Y
    m1. Sir Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Lord of Wemme b 1370, d 1410
    m2. Ralph Neville of Raby, 1st Earl of Westmorland d 21.10.1425
    Y
    Pl21-5 Edmund Plantagenet of Langley, Earl of Cambridge, 1st Duke of York b 05.06.1341, d 01.08.1402
    m1. 01.03.1372 Isabella of Castile b 1355, d 23.11.1392, dau of Pedro I 'the Cruel', King of Castile and Leon
    a. Edward Plantagenet, 2nd Duke of York, Duke of Albermarle b 1373, d Agincourt 25.10.1415
    m. 1396 Philippa de Mohun d 17.07.1431, dau of John de Mohun, 2nd Lord of Dunster
    b. Richard Plantagenet of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge b 1375, d 05.08.1415
    m1. Anne Mortimer dau of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
    1 Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York b 21.09.1411, d Wakefield 31.12.1460
    m. before 18.10.1424 Cecily Nevill d 31.05.1495, dau of Ralph Nevill, 1st Earl of Westmorland
    A Edward Plantagenet, King Edward IV of England b 28.04.1441, d 09.04.1483
    It has been alleged that Edward was not son of the Duke of York but was his mother's bastard, having been conceived when the Duke was away on a military campaign. This is thought to have been part of the reason why Edward's sons, 'the Princes in the Tower', were murdered. After Edward's brother & successor King Richard III had been killed at Bosworth, the crown passed through Edward's daughter Elizabeth into the Tudor family, thereby ending the Wars of the Roses. Had Richard won at Bosworth and not had an heir, Edward may not have been accepted as legitimate and the succession would probably then have passed through their niece Margaret Plantagenet who was married after Bosworth to Sir Richard Pole.
    m. 01.05.1464 Elizabeth Wydville b c1437, d 06.1492, dau of Sir Richard Wydville, 1st Earl Rivers
    i Edward Plantagenet, King Edward V of England b 02.11.1470, d 23.06.1483
    ii Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York b 17.08.1473, d 23.06.1483
    m. 15.01.1477-8 Anne Mowbray b c1472, d 16.01.1480-1, dau of John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
    iii Elizabeth Plantagenet b 1466, d 11.02.1503ancestors line Y
    Y..
    m. 18.01.1486 Henry Tudor, King Henry VII of England b 26.07.1455, d 22.04.1509
    ancestors line H
    ..
    v Cicely Plantagenet b 20.03.1468/9, d 24.08.1507
    m1. 01.12.1487 John, Viscount Welles dsps 09.02.1498-9
    m2. 1503 Thomas Kymbe
    vii Anne Plantagenet b 02.11.1475, dsps 23.11.1511
    m. 04.02.1494-5 Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk b 1473, d 25.08.1554
    viii Katherine Plantagenet b 1479, d 15.11.1527
    m. 10.1495 Sir William Courtenay, 'Earl of Devon' d 09.06.1511
    ix+ other issue - Mary b 1467, d unm 23.05.1482, Margaret b 19.04.1472, d infant, Bridget b 10.11.1480, d 1517, nun
    p. Lady Elizabeth Lucy
    xii Elizabeth
    m. Thomas Lumley dvp 1487
    p. probably either the above Elizabeth Lucy or Jane Shore or Elizabeth Waite
    xiii Arthur Waite, later Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle d 03.03.1541/2
    m1. 12.11.1511 Elizabeth Grey d c1530, dau of Edward Grey, 1st Viscount L'Isle
    a Frances Plantagenet presumed of this marriage
    m1. John Basset of Tehidy and Umberleigh b 1519, d 1541
    m2. Thomas Monck of Potheridge
    b+ 2 daughters presumed of this marriage
    m2. Honora Granville a 08.1563, dau of Sir Thomas Granville
    B Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland b 17.05.1443, d unm Wakefield 31.12.1460
    C George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, Earl of Warwick b 21.10.1449, d 18.01.1477
    m. 11.07.1469 Isabel Nevill b 05.09.1451, d 12.12.1476, dau of Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick
    i Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury b c1469, d 27.05.1541
    m. 22.09.1494 Sir Richard Pole d 11.1504
    ii Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick b 21.02.1474-5, d unm 24.11.1499
    C Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, King Richard III of England b 21.10.1450, died Bosworth 22.08.1485
    m. 12.07.1472 Anne Nevill d 16.03.1485, dau of Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick
    i Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Salisbury, Prince of Wales b 1473, dvp 31.03.1484
    D Anne Plantagenet d 14.01.1475-6
    m1. 30.07.1447, div 12.11.1472 Henry Holand, 2nd Duke of Exeter d 1473
    m2. Sir Thomas St. Leger
    E Elizabeth Plantagenet
    m. 10.1460 John de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk d 1491
    F Margaret Plantagenet dsp
    m. 09.07.1468 Charles 'the Bold', Duke of Burgundy
    2 Isabel Plantagenet d 02.10.1484
    m. Henry Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Ewe, 1st Earl of Essex d 04.04.1483
    m2. Maud Clifford dau of Thomas, Lord de Clifford
    c. Constance Plantagenet d 28.11.1416
    m. 1386 Thomas le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester d 17.01.1400
    p. Edmund Holand, 4th Earl of Kent b 06.01.1383, d 15.09.1407
    m2. before 04.11.1393 Joan Holand b 1380, d 1434, dau of Thomas Holand, 2nd Earl of Kent
    Pl21-6 Mary Plantagenet b 10.10.1344, dsp 1361/2
    m. 1361 Jean V, Duke of Bretagne b 1339, d 01.11.1399
    Pl21-7 Margaret Plantagenet b 20.07.1346, dsp after 01.10.1361
    m. 19.05.1359 John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke b 29.08.1347, d 16.04.1375
    Pl21=18 Thomas Plantagenet of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Buckingham b 07.01.1355, d 08.09.1397
    m. 1374 Eleanor de Bohun b 1366, d 03.10.1399, dau of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, Hereford & Essex 
    Pl20-1 Humphrey Plantagenet de Bohun, Duke of Gloucester b c1382, d unm 02.09.1399
    Pl17=20 Anne Plantagenet, Countess of Buckingham, Hereford & Northampton b 1383, d 16.10.1438
    m1. c1390 Thomas de Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford b before 1368, dsp 04.07.1392
    m2. c28.06.1398 Edmund de Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford b 02.03.1377, d Shrewsbury 21.07.1403
    m3. 20.11.1405 William Bourchier, 1st Earl of Ewe Eu d 28.05.1420 and had issue
    Pl20-3 Joan Plantagenet b 1384, d 16.08.1400
    m. before 20.05.1392, sp Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron b 1383, d 19.10.1418-9
    Pl20-4+ other issue - Isabel b 12.03.1386, d 1402, nun, Philippa b c1389, d before 03.10.1399
    Pl21-9 Joan b c1335, d 1348 was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his Queen, Philippa of Hainault. Joan, also known as Joanna, was born perhaps in February of 1333 in the Tower of London.
    As a child she was put in the care of Marie de St Pol, wife of Aymer de Valence, who was the foundress of Pembroke College, Cambridge. She grew up together with her sister Isabella, her brother Edward and their cousin Joan of Kent.
    In 1338 Joan was taken on her father's travel to Coblence, where they met Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and were his special guests at the Imperial Diet in the church of Saint Castor. Edward III had formed an alliance with him against Philip VI of France, but in 1341 the emperor deserted him.
    It is possible that Joan had been betrothed to one of the sons Louis had with his wife Margaret of Holland, Philippa's older sister, and actually stayed in their court to be educated there. However, Edward III withdrew her in 1340.
    In 1345 she was betrothed to Pedro of Castile, son of Alphonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal.
    In early August of 1348 Joan left England with the blessing of her parents, and thanks to a heavily armed retinue she was, perhaps, the most protected woman of Europe in those days. It is said that her trousseau alone required an entire ship, and the travel schedule included a visit to a castle of her family in Bordeaux.
    Edward III spared no expense in the preparation of Joan's journey, equipping her in the most impressive and wonderful way he could. The King loved his daughter, but it's very likely that he also wanted to make a display of power and wealth toward his allies in Castile.
    The fleet that carried the Princess and her retinue consisted of four English ships, which departed from Portsmouth and were received in Bordeaux by the awestruck mayor Raymond de Bisquale. Some say that he immediately warned Joan and her companions about the danger of the Plague, but they didn't listen and proceeded to settle in the royal castle overlooking the estuary of the Gironde.
    Joan's entourage included three leading officials: Robert Bouchier, the former royal chancellor; Andrew Ullford, a diplomatic lawyer; and the cathedral priest of Bordeaux, Gerald de Podio, who was to take care of the Princess's spiritual needs. Joan also had a remarkable Castilian minstrel, Gracias de Gyvill, who had been dispatched to England by Prince Pedro in order to entertain her with music and songs of the land of which she was to be Queen.
    The Princess was protected by over a hundred formidable English bowmen, some of them veterans of the Battle of Crecy, and she even traveled with a luxurious portable chapel so she could enjoy Catholic services without having to use the local churches all along the way to Castile.
    Joan's wedding dress was made with more than 150 meters of rakematiz, a thick imported silk, but she also had a suit of red velvet, five corsets woven with gold patterns of stars, crescents and diamonds and at least two elaborate dresses with an inbuilt corset.
    As Princess Joan embarked on her journey to Castile, the Black Death had not taken hold of England yet and it is unlikely that they were aware of the dangers that lay ahead. Joan and her retinue were travelling into the center of a tragedy the likes of which Europe had never seen, and arrows and walls would not be enough to save her.
    Despite the severe outbreak that was taking place in Bordeaux, at first it did not occur to Joan and her advisors to get out of town. Very soon she watched in horror as the members of her entourage began falling sick and dying, and Robert Bouchier, the main leader of the retinue, died on August 20th of the Plague.
    Joan feared for her life, and was moved probably to a small village called Loremo where she remained for some time. However, they could not escape the disease and Joan was its first victim in the camp, suffering a violent and quick attack of the Black Death and dying on September 2nd, 1348, never reaching Castile and leaving her family in sorrow and fear.
    Some accounts document that Joan was buried in Bayonne Cathedral, and her statue, in Westminster Abbey, is on the South Side of her father's tomb.
    Aftermath
    Joan's death sent shockwaves back home. Not only was she one of the earliest English victims of the Plague, but her death seemed to prove that even royalty was not going to be spared this deadly affliction.
    Andrew Ullford, the diplomatic lawyer, was not affected by the Plague and very soon he took off for England, in order to inform the King what had occurred. He did so in October, and the royal family, horrified, realized the true danger of the disease that had already started to attack their kingdom.
    On October 15, 1348, Edward III sent a letter to King Alfonso of Castile terminating the marriage arrangements and describing the sorrow that he and his family were suffering after the sudden and tragic death of the Princess. He described Joan as a martyred angel looking down from Heaven to protect the royal family, and concluded with traditional and formal piety:
    "We have placed our trust in God and our life between his hands, where he held it closely through many dangers"
    On October 25, Edward III sent an expedition to Bordeaux that was supposed to find the body of Joan and bring it back for burial in London. The leader was a northern ecclesiastical lord, the bishop of Carlisle, who was overpaid by the King because of the terrible risk involved.
    It is unknown what happened next. There is no record of Joan's remains being returned to England, nor any account of a funeral of any kind. Joan was taken away by the Plague and turned into a legend, and it has been suggested that her death, which prevented the dynastic union between England and Castile, altered the course of the Hundred Years' War and changed European history for centuries to come[citation needed].
    The Letter
    Here is part of the letter that King Edward III sent to King Alfonso of Castile, as translated by Rosemary Horrox in her book The Black Death:
    "We are sure that your Magnificence knows how, after much complicated negotiation about the intended marriage of the renowned Prince Pedro, your eldest son, and our most beloved daughter Joan, which was designed to nurture perpetual peace and create an indissoluble union between our Royal Houses, we sent our said daughter to Bordeaux, en route for your territories in Spain. But see, with what intense bitterness of heart we have to tell you this, destructive Death who seizes young and old alike, sparing no one and reducing rich and poor to the same level has lamentably snatched from both of us our dearest daughter, whom we loved best of all, as her virtues demanded"
    "No fellow human being could be surprised if we were inwardly desolated by the sting of this bitter grief, for we are humans too. But we, who have placed our trust in God and our Life between his hands, where he has held it closely through many great dangers, we give thanks to him that one of our own family, free of all stain, whom we have loved with our life, has been sent ahead to Heaven to reign among the choirs of virgins, where she can gladly intercede for our offenses before God Himself"
    Pl21-10 William b before 16.02.1337, d 1337,
    Pl21-11 Blanche b/d 1342
    Pl21-12 William b/d 1348
    Pl22-2 John Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall b 15.08.1316, d 14.09.1336
    Pl22-3. Eleanor Plantagenet b 08.06.1318, d 22.04.1355
    m. 1332 Rainald II, Duke of Gueldres d 1343
    Pl22-4. Joan Plantagenet b 05.07.1321, d 07.09.1362
    m. 17.07.1328 David Bruce, King David II of Scots b 05.03.1324, dsp 22.02.1370
    Pl21-6 daughter b/d 1255,
    Pl21-7 Katherine b before 17.06.1264, d 05.09.1264, Joan b 1265, d before 07.09.1265,
    Pl21-8 Joan b 1265, d before 07.09.1265,
    Pl21-9 John b 13/14.07.1266, d 03.08.1271, Henry b c05.1268, d 14/17.10.1274,
    Pl21-10 Henry b c05.1268, d 14/17.10.1274,
    Pl21-11 daughter b/d 1271/2,
    Pl21-12 Alfonso b 24.11.1273, d 19.08.1284, Earl of Chester,
    Pl21-13 Berengaria b 01.05.1276, d before 27.06.1278,
    Pl21-14 daughter b/d 1278,
    Pl21-15 Mary b 11/12.03.1279, d 29.05.1332, nun,
    Pl21-16 Beatrice b c1286, d young,
    Pl21-17 Blanche b 1290, d young,
    Pl21=Bo22 John de Botetourt by unknown mistress
    m2. 08.09.1299 Margaret of France b 1275-79, d 14.02.1317
    HJ
    Pl22 Edmund Plantagenet of Woodstock, 'Crouchback', Earl of Chester, Leicester, Derby & Lancaster b 16.01.1245, d 05.06.1296
    He received many marks of favour from his brother, whom he steadily supported until the last act in Edward’s life opened in 1326. He fought in Scotland and then in France and was a member of the council when Edward III became king in 1327. Soon at variance with Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer, Edmund was involved in a conspiracy to restore Edward II, who he was led to believe was still alive he had been murdered in September 1327; Edmund was arrested and beheaded. Although he had been condemned as a traitor, his elder son Edmund c. 1327–33 was recognized as earl of Kent in December 1330, the title passing on his death to his brother John c. 1330–52.
    m1. 09.04.1269 Aveline de Forez, 'de Fortibus' b 1259, d 1274, dau of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle
    m2. 03.02.1276 Blanche d'Artois b c1243, d 02.05.1302, dau of Robert I, Count of Artois
    Pl21-1 Thomas Plantagenet, 'the Martyr', 2nd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Lincoln b 1279/80, d 1322
    m. c1310, div 1318 Alice de Lacy b 1281, d 1348, dau of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln
    Pl21=22 Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester b c 1281 d 22.09.1348
    m1. before 02.03.1297 Maud de Chaworth b 1282, d after 19.02.1317/22
    Pl20-1 Henry Plantagenet, 4th Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester & Derby b c1314, d 24.03.1361
    m. c1334 Isabel de Beaumont b c1315, d after 24.03.1356, dau of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Lord, Earl of Buchan
    Pl20-1-1 Matilda Plantagenet b 1335, dsps 10.04.1362
    m1. Ralph de Stafford, younger of Stafford dvpsp 1347
    m2. 1352 Wilhelm I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, Count of Holland, etc. b 1330, d 1388
    Pl20-1-2 Blanche Plantagenet b 25.03.1345, d 12.09.1369
    m. 19.05.1359 John Plantagenet of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster b 24.06.1340, d 03.021399
    Pl20-2 Blanche Plantagenet b 1305, d before 12.07.1380
    m. before 09.10.1316 Thomas Wake, 2nd Lord Wake dsp 1349
    Pl20-3 Maud Plantagenet b 1298/c1310, d before 05.05.1377
    m1. c1330 William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster b 1312, d 06.06.1333
    Y
    m2. before 06.07.1345 Sir Ralph de Ufford, Justice of Ireland d 1346
    Pl20=22 Joan Plantagenet b c1312, d after 06.02.1345/7 or 07.07.1349
    m. 28.02.1326 John de Mowbray, 3rd Lord d 04.10.1361
    Pl20-5 Isabel Plantagenet, prioress b c1317, d after 01.02.1347
    Pl20 Eleanor Plantagenet b 1311/c1316, d 11.01.1372
    HJY
    m1. 1337 John Beaumont, 2nd Lord b 1317/8, d 05.1342
    m2. 05.02.1345 Richard FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel Fi20 b 1306, d 1376
    HJY
    Pl20 Mary Plantagenet b c1321, d 01.09.1362
    m. 1334 Henry Percy, 3rd Lord of Alnwick b 1320, d c17.05.1368
    m2. after 1322 Alix de Joinville d after 19.04.1336
    Pl21-3+ other issue - John b by 1286, d before 1327, Mary d young
    Pl22-3 Margaret Plantagenet b 29.09.1240, d 1275
    m. 26.12.1251 Alexander III, King of Scots d 1286
    Pl22-4 Beatrice Plantagenet b 25.06.1242, d 24.03.1275
    GHSY
    m. 22.01.1259/60 Jean II de Dreux, Duke of Brittany Bretagne b 1239, d 18.11.1305
    GHSY
    Pl22-5 Richard Plantagenet b c1247, d before 1256,
    Pl22-6 John Plantagenet b c1250, d before 1256,
    Pl22-7 Henry Plantagenet b after 1265, d young,
    Pl22-8 William Plantagenet b/d c1256,
    Pl22-9 Katherine Plantagenet b 25.11.1253, d 03.05.1257
    Pl22-10? reported by geni.com
    Thomas Plantagenet of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk b 1 Jun 1300 d Aug 1338
    m Alice de Hales
    -1 Margaret Plantagenet b c 1320 Norfolk d 24 Mar 1399 Grey Friars London
    m1 John Segrave 4th Baron
    m2 Walter 1st Baron Manny
    -1-1 Edmund de Segrave
    -1-2 Elizabeth de Segrave, Baroness de Mowbray
    -1-3 John de Segrave, 1342
    -1-4 Anne Hastings, Abbess of Barking
    -1-5 Thomas de Mauny
    Pl23-2 Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans b 05.01.1209, d 02.04.1272 He was born on January 5, 1209 at Winchester Castle, the second son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. He was made High Sheriff of Berkshire at the age of only eight, was styled Count of Poitou from 1225 and in the same year, at the age of sixteen, his brother King Henry gave him Cornwall as a birthday present. Richard's revenues from Cornwall provided him with great wealth, and he became one of the wealthiest men in Europe. Though he campaigned on King Henry's behalf in Poitou and Brittany, and served as Regent three times, relations were often strained between the brothers in the early years of Henry's reign. Richard rebelled against him three times, and had to be bought off with lavish gifts.
    In March 1231 he married Isabel Marshal, the wealthy widow of the Earl of Gloucester, much to the displeasure of his brother King Henry, who feared the Marshal family because they were rich, influential, and often opposed him. Richard became stepfather to Isabel's six children from her first husband. In that same year he acquired his main residence, Wallingford Castle in Berkshire now Oxfordshire, and spent much money on developing it. He had other favoured properties at Marlow and Cippenham in Buckinghamshire. Isabel and Richard had four children, of whom only their son, Henry of Almain, survived to adulthood. Richard opposed Simon de Montfort, and rose in rebellion in 1238 to protest against the marriage of his sister, Eleanor, to Simon. Once again he was placated with rich gifts.
    When Isabel was on her deathbed in 1240, she asked to be buried next to her first husband at Tewkesbury, but Richard had her interred at Beaulieu Abbey instead. As a pious gesture, however, he sent her heart to Tewkesbury. Later that year Richard departed for the Holy Land. He fought in no battles but managed to negotiate for the release of prisoners and the burials of Crusaders killed at a battle in Gaza in 1239. He also refortified Ascalon, which had been demolished by Saladin. On his return from the Holy Land, Richard visited his sister Isabella, the empress of Frederick II. Shortly after his return on January 28, 1242, King Henry and his wife Eleanor brought up the idea of a marriage with Eleanor's sister Sanchia. On his journey to the Holy Land, Richard had met her in the Provence, where he was warmly welcomed by her father Raymond Berenger V and had fallen in love with this beautiful girl. Richard and Sanchia whom the English called Cynthia married at Westminster in November 1243. This marriage tied him even more closely to the royal party.
    Richard's claims to Gascony and Poitou were never more than nominal, and in 1241 King Louis IX of France invested his own brother Alphonse with Poitou. Moreover, Richard and Henry's mother, Isabella of Angouleme, claimed to have been insulted by the French king. They were encouraged to recover Poitou by their stepfather, Hugh X of Lusignan, but the expedition turned into a military fiasco after Lusignan betrayed them.
    The pope offered Richard the crown of Sicily, but according to Matthew Paris he responded to the extortionate price by saying, "You might as well say, 'I make you a present of the moon - step up to the sky and take it down'."[1] Instead, his brother King Henry purchased the kingdom for his own son Edmund.
    Although Richard was elected in 1256 as King of Germany by four of the seven German Electoral Princes Cologne, Mainz, the Palatinate and Bohemia, his candidacy was opposed by Alfonso X of Castile who was elected by Saxony, Brandenburg and Trier. The pope and king Louis IX of France favoured Alfonso, but both were ultimately convinced by the powerful relatives of Richard's sister in law, Eleanor of Provence, to support Richard. Ottokar II of Bohemia, who at first voted for Richard but later elected Alfonso, eventually agreed to support the earl of Cornwall, thus establishing the required simple majority. So Richard only had to bribe four of them, but this came at a huge cost of 28,000 marks! On May 27, 1257 the archbishop of Cologne himself crowned Richard "King of the Romans" in Aachen [2]. However, like his lordships in Gascony and Poitou, his title never held much significance, and he made only four brief visits to Germany between 1257 and 1269.
    He founded Burnham Abbey in Buckinghamshire in 1263, and the Grashaus, Aachen in 1266.
    He joined King Henry in fighting against Simon de Montfort's rebels in the Second Barons' War 1264–67. After the shattering royalist defeat at the Battle of Lewes, Richard took refuge in a windmill, was discovered, and imprisoned until September 1265.
    In December 1271 he had a stroke. His right side was paralyzed and he lost the ability to speak. On 2 April 1272, Richard died at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. He was buried next to his second wife Sanchia of Provence and Henry of Almain, his son by his first wife, at Hailes Abbey, which he had founded.
    After his death, a power struggle ensued in Germany, which only ended in 1273 by the emergence of a new Roman King, Rudolph I of Habsburg, the first scion of a long lasting noble family to rule the empire. In Cornwall, Richard was succeeded by Edmund, son of his second wife Sanchia.
    m1. 13.03.1231 Isabel Marshal b 09.10.1200, d 15.01.1240, dau of William Mareschal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Pl23-2-1 Henry Plantagenet b 02.11.1235, d 1271
    m. 15.05.1269 Constance, Countess of Bigorre d 1310, dau of Gaston de Moncada, Vcte de Bearn
    Pl23-2-2+ other issue - John Plantagenet b 31.01.1231/2, d 22.09.1232, Isabella Plantagenet b 1233, d 1234, Nicholas Plantagenet b/d 1240
    m2. 1243 Sancha of Provence b 1225, d 1261, dau of Raimund Berengar I, Count of Provence and Forcalquier
    Pl23-2-5 Richard Plantagenet b/d 1246
    Pl23-2-6 Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall b 1249, dsp 1300
    m 1272, div 1293/4 Margaret de Clare b 1249, d 1313, dau of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Gloucester
    p1. Joan de Valletort
    Pl23-2-7 Richard de Cornewall of Thunnock b c1234, d Berwick 1272 m. Joan de St. Owen dau of John, Lord St. Owen
    partners unknown
    Pl23-2-8 Walter de Cornewall
    Pl23-2-9 Edward de Cornewall
    m. 07.12.1309 Elizabeth Croft b 12.12.1294, dau of Sir Hugh de Croft of Wharton, Newton and Croft
    Pl23-3 Joan Plantagenet b 22.07.1210, d 04.03.1238, Queen Consort of Scotland 22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238 was the eldest legitimate daughter and third child of John of England and Isabella of Angouleme.
    Joan was brought up in the court of Hugh X of Lusignan who was promised to her in marriage from an early age, as compensation for him being jilted by her mother Isabella of Angouleme, however on the death of John of England, Isabella decided she should marry him herself and Joan was sent back to England, where negotiations for her hand with Alexander II of Scotland were taking place.
    She and Alexander married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster[1]. Alexander was 23. Joan was 11. They had no children. Joan died in her brother's arms at Havering-atte-Bower in 1238, and was buried at Tarant Crawford Abbey in Dorset[2].
    m. 1221 Alexander II, King of Scotland d 1249
    Pl23-4 Isabella Plantagenet b 1214, d 01.12.1241
    m. 20.07.1235 Frederick II, King of Germany, Emperor b 26.12.1194, d 13.12.1250
    Pl23-5 Eleanor Plantagenet b 1215, d 13.04.1275
    m1. 23.04.1224 William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke dsp 1231
    m2. 07.01.1237/9 Simon de Montfort, 2nd Earl of Leicester b 1208/9, d Evesham 04.08.1265 H
    p1. Suzanne de Warren
    Pl23-6 Richard Fitzroy of Chilham b c1186, d c06.1246
    BE1883 Lucy suggests that Richard's wife was of the Lucy family but it seems instead that she was ...
    m. c1207 Rohese de Douvres b c1188, d 1264/5, dau of Foubert/Robert de Douvres of Chilham
    Pl23-6-1 Richard de Douvres or Dover of Chilham d 1247
    m. Maud, Countess of Angus b c1222, d 1261
    1 Richard de Chilham d by 10.01.12266
    2 Isabel de Chilham b after 1245, d by 01.05.1292
    ..
    m1. Sir David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol b c1240, d 06.08.1270
    ..
    m2. Sir Alexander de Baliol of Cavers
    ..
    Pl23-6-2 Isabel de Chilham b c1218, d 07.07.1276/7
    m. c12.07.1247 Maurice de Berkeley d 04.04.1281
    Pl23-6-3. Loretta de Dover
    m. 1248 William Marmion d 1275
    p2. Agatha Ferrers dau of William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby
    Pl23=26 Joan Plantagenet b c1188, d 04.03.1237 was an illegitimate daughter of King John of England and a woman named Clemence Pinel.[1] She should not be confused with her legitimate half-sister Joan, Queen Consort of Scotland.
    Little is known about her early life; she was possibly born before her father, King John of England, married his first wife in 1189. Her mother's name is known only from Joan's obituary in the Tewkesbury Annals, where she is mysteriously called "Regina Clementina" Queen Clemence. Joan seems to have spent her childhood in France, as King John had her brought to the Kingdom of England from Normandy in preparation for her wedding in December 1203 at 15 years of age or so.
    HJY
    m. 18.06.1205 Llywelyn 'the Great', Prince of Wales b 1173, d 11.04.1240
    HJY
    partner unknown
    Pl23-8 Isabella de Blanche
    m. Sir Richard FitzYva d 1207
    Pl23-8-1 Richard FitzYva d 1281?
    Pl23-8-1-1 Isabell FitzYva d 04.04.1313
    m. Sir Belym Heligan d 1312
    Pl24-6 Matilda Plantagenet b 1156, d 28.06.1189
    GHJS
    m. 01.02.1168 Henry V, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria d 06.08.1195
    GHJS
    Pl24=25 Eleanor Plantagenet b 13.10.1162, d 31.10.1214
    GHJSWY
    m. 22.09.1177 Alfonso VIII 'el Noble', King of Castile b 1155, d 1214
    GHJSWY
    Pl24-8 Joan Plantagenet b 1165, d 04.09.1199 was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Matilda of England, Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany and Leonora of Aquitaine. She was also an older sister of John of England.
    Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles, her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse.
    After a hazardous voyage, Joan arrived safely, and on 13 February 1177, she married William II of Sicily and was crowned Queen of Sicily at Palermo Cathedral. They had one son, Bohemond, born in 1181 and who died in infancy. Following William's death in 1189, she was kept a prisoner by the new king, Tancred of Sicily.
    Third Crusade
    Finally, her brother Richard I of England arrived in Italy in 1190, on the way to the Holy Land. He demanded her return, along with every penny of her dowry. When Tancred balked at these demands, Richard seized a monastery and the castle of La Bagnara. He decided to spend the winter in Italy and attacked and subdued the city of Messina. Finally, Tancred agreed to the terms and sent Joan's dowry. In March 1191 Eleanor of Aquitaine arrived in Messina with Richard's bride, Berengaria of Navarre.
    Eleanor returned to England, leaving Berengaria in Joan's care. Richard decided to postpone his wedding, put his sister and bride on a ship, and set sail. Two days later the fleet was hit by a fierce storm, destroying several ships and blowing Joan and Berengaria's ship off course. Richard landed safely in Crete, but they were stranded near Cyprus. The self-appointed despot of Cyprus, Isaac Comnenus was about to capture them when Richard's fleet suddenly appeared. The princesses were saved, but the despot made off with Richard's treasure. Richard pursued and captured Isaac, threw him into a dungeon, and sent Joan and Berengaria on to Acre.
    Joan was Richard's favourite sister, but he was not above using her as a bargaining chip in his political schemes. He even suggested marrying her to Saladin's brother, Al-Adil, and making them joint rulers of Jerusalem. This plan fell apart when Joan refused to marry a Muslim and Al-Adil refused to marry a Christian. King Philip II of France also expressed some interest in marrying her, but this scheme, too, failed possibly on grounds of affinity, since Philip's father Louis VII had formerly been married to her mother.
    Countess of Toulouse
    Joan was married in October 1196, at Rouen, to Raymond VI of Toulouse, with Quercy and the Agenais as her dowry. She was the mother of his successor Raymond VII of Toulouse, and a short lived daughter 1198.
    This new husband treated her none too gently, however, and Joan came to fear him and his knights. In 1199, while pregnant with a third child, Joan was left alone to face a rebellion in which the lords of Saint-Félix-de-Caraman were prominent. She laid siege to their castle at les Cassès but was menaced by treachery. Escaping this threat, Joan travelled northwards, hoping for her brother's protection, but found him dead at Chalus.[1] She then fled to her mother Queen Eleanor's court at Rouen, where she was offered refuge and care.
    Joan asked to be admitted to Fontevrault Abbey, an unusual request for a married, pregnant woman, but this request was granted. She died in childbirth and was veiled a nun on her deathbed. Her son lived just long enough to be baptised he was named Richard. Joan was thirty-three years old. She was buried at Fontevrault Abbey, and fifty years later her son Raymond VII would be interred next to her.
    m1. 13.12.1177 William II, King of Sicily b 1154, d 16.11.1189
    m2. 1196 Raymond, Count of Toulouse d 1222
    p1. Rosamund de Clifford dau of Walter de Clifford
    Pl24 William Plantagenet, 'Longespee', 1st Earl of Salisbury b 17.08.1152, d 04.03.1226 was an English noble, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to King John.
    He was an illegitimate son of Henry II of England. His mother was unknown for many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning "Comitissa Ida, mater mea" engl. "Countess Ida, my mother"[2] [ Reed, Paul C. 2002, "Countess Ida, Mother of William Longespée, Illegitimate Son of Henry II", The American Genealogist 77 2002: 137]
    This Ida was further identified as the wife of Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk [4].
    King Henry acknowledged William as his son and gave him the Honour of Appleby, Lincolnshire in 1188. Ten years later, his half-brother, King Richard I, married him to a great heiress, Ela, countess of Salisbury in her own right, and daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.
    During the reign of King John, Salisbury was at court on several important ceremonial occasions, and held various offices: sheriff of Wiltshire, lieutenant of Gascony, constable of Dover and warden of the Cinque Ports, and later warden of the Welsh Marches. He was a commander in the king's Welsh and Irish expeditions of 1210-1212. The king also granted him the honour of Eye.
    In 1213, Salisbury led a large fleet to Flanders, where he seized or destroyed a good part of a French invasion fleet anchored at or near Damme. This ended the invasion threat but not the conflicts between England and France. In 1214, Salisbury was sent to help Otto IV of Germany, an English ally, who was invading France. Salisbury commanded the right wing of the army at their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Bouvines, where he was captured.
    By the time he returned to England, revolt was brewing amongst the barons. Salisbury was one of the few who remained loyal to John. In the civil war that took place the year after the signing of the Magna Carta, Salisbury was one of the leaders of the king's army in the south. However, after the French prince Louis later Louis VIII landed as an ally of the rebels, Salisbury went over to his side. Presumably, he thought John's cause was lost.
    After John's death and the departure of Louis, Salisbury, along with many other barons, joined the cause of John's young son, now Henry III of England. He held an influential place in the government during the king's minority and fought in Gascony to help secure the remaining part of the English continental possessions. Salisbury's ship was nearly lost in a storm while returning to England in 1225, and he spent some months in refuge at a monastery on the French island of Ré. He died not long after his return to England at Salisbury Castle. Roger of Wendover alleged that he was poisoned by Hubert de Burgh. He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.
    William de Longespee's tomb was opened in 1791. Bizarrely, the well-preserved corpse of a rat which carried traces of arsenic [5], was found inside his skull.
    m. 1196 Ela Fitzpatrick b 1187, d 24.08.1261, dau of William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury
    Pl23-1 William de Longespee Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Salisbury b c 1200, d 07.02.1250 m. c 1216 Idonea de Camville b c1208, d 1269/70 or 1251/52, dau of Richard de Camville
    Pl23-1-1 William de Longespee Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Salisbury d 1256/7
    m. c1254 Maud de Clifford dau of Walter de Clifford
    Pl23-1-1-1 Margaret de Longespee Plantagenet b c1254, d 1306/10
    m. c1256 Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, Earl of Salisbury d c1311
    Pl23-1-2 Richard de Longespee Plantagenet d c12.1261
    m. Alice le Rus
    Pl23-1-3 Ela de Longespee Plantagenet d c11.1299
    m. c1244 James d'Audley b c1225, d 11.06.1272
    -1 James d’Audley b 1272, Md., Maud ?
    -2. Henry d’Audley b 1276 m Lucy ? b c. 1303.
    -3. William d’Audley b 1253 b 1282.
    -4. Nicholas d’Audley b c 1258 b 1299, Md., Catherine Gifford b 1272 b 1322 dau of John Gifford, Baron Gifford of Brimsfield.
    -5. Hugh Audley, of Tratton Audley b c 1267 b c. 1326 m before 1289, Isolde de Mortimer b c 1270 b dau of Edmond de Mortimer, of Wigmore, Hertfordshire.
    -6. Joane Audley, Md., John de Beauchamp.

    -4-1. Thomas d’Audley b 1288 b 1307, Md., Eve Clavering dau of John de Clavering, 2nd Baron Clavering.
    -4-2. Nicholas d’Audley, 1st Baron Audley (1313) b 1319 m 1312, Joan Martin b before 1322 dau of William Martin.
    -5-1. Hugh Audley, Earl of Gloucester b 1289 b 1347 in France m 1317, Margaret de Clare b c 1292 b 1342 dau of Gilbert “ the Red Earl” de Clare, Earl of Gloucester.
    -5-2. Alice Audley b c 1304 b 1374 m1 c. 1317, Ralph de Greystoke, 3rd Lord Greystoke b 1299 b 1323, ISSUE SEE ; Md.2) 1327, Ralph de Nevill(e), 2nd Lord Neville of Raby b c 1291 b 1367, ISSUE SEE .

    -4-2-1. James d’Audley, 2nd Baron Audley b 1313 b 1386, m1 Joan Mortimer b c 1314, +before 1351 +3ch dau of Roger Mortime, 1st Earl of March (1328) m2 1351, Isabel le Strange +1ch dau of Roger le Strange, 5th Lord of Knokyn
    -4-2-2. Alice Audley b c 1313 b c. 1365, Md., Ralph Basset, of Drayton b c 1305 b 1335.
    -5-1-1. Margaret Audley, Baroness Audley in her own right b c 1318 b 1349 m 1335, Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford (1350), K.G. b 1301 b 1372, ISSUE SEE .

    -4-2-1-1. Nicholas d’Audley, 3rd Baron Audley b c 1328 b 1391, Md.c. 1330, Elizabeth de Beaumont b 1400 dau of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Baron Beaumont, Earl of Buchan.
    -4-2-1-2. Joan d’Audley b 1331 b 1393, Md., Sir John Touchet b 1327 b c. 1371.
    -4-2-1-3. Margaret Audley, Md., Sir Roger Hillary.
    -4-2-1-4. Margaret Audley, Md., Fulk FitzWarin, of Whittington.
    -4-2-2-1 Sir Ralph Basset K.G. b c 1335 b 1390, m1 Joan Beauchamp dau of Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick m2 Jeanne de Dreux b 1341 b 1399 dau of Jean IV de Montfort de Dreux, Count de Montfort-L’Amaury.
    -4-2-2-2. Isabella Basset b c 1334 b c. 1393, Md., Sir Thomas de Shirley b c 1315 b c. 1363, ISSUE SEE .

    -4-2-1-2-1. John Touchet “Lord Audley" b 1372, m Margery Mortimer dau of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.
    -4-2-1-4-1. Fulk FitzWarin, 5th Lord of Whittington b 1362 b 1391, Md., Elizabeth Cogan b 1397 dau of William Cogan, of Brampton.

    -4-2-1-2-1-1 John Touchet, 1st Baron Touchet, 4th Baron Audley b 1371 b 1408, Md., Elizabeth (Isabel) de Stafford b 1375 b after 1404 dau of Humphrey de Stafford.
    -4-2-1-2-1-2 Jane Touchet/Tuchet, Md., Jenkins de Welch Frankton, possible Issue.
    -4-2-1-4-1-1 Fulk FitzWarin, 6th Lord of Whittington b 1389 b 1407, Md., Anne Botreaux b 1420 dau of William de Botreaux, 2nd Lord Botreaux.

    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1 James Touchet, 5th Baron Audley b c 1398 d 1459, m1 1415, Margaret de Ros dau of William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley, K.G., P.C. m2 Lady Eleanor Holland b c 1406 b dau of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-2 Margaret Touchet, Md., Sir John Luttell, of Dunster Castle b 1430, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-3 Elizabeth Touchet b c 1401, +, Md., Sir John Baskerville, of Combe b 1408 b 1455, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-4-1-1-1 Fulke FitzWarin, 7th Lord of Whittington b 1405 b 1420.
    -4-2-1-4-1-1-2 Elizabeth FitzWarin b c 1403 b c. 1429, Md., Sir Richard Hankeford b 1397 b 1431.

    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-1 John Touchet, 6th Baron Audley, Lord Treasurer of England b 1423 d 26 Sep 1490 m Anne Echingham b 1428 +7ch dau of Sir Thomas Echingham.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2 Margaret or Anne Touchet b 1430 m1 Sir Thomas Dutton, of Dutton b 1421 d 1459 in battle at Blore Heath m2 1459, Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Tankerville b 1436 b 1466, ISSUE SEE
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-3. Humphrey Touchet (later Audley), Sir b c 1435 b 1471 in the battle of Tewkesbury, Md.c. 1462, Elizabeth Courtenay b c 1430 d c. 1493 dau of Sir Philip Courtenay, of Powderham, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-4. Edmund Touchet (later Audley), Bishop of Rochester (1480), Hereford (1490) and Salisbury (1502) b 1437 b 1524.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-5. Thomas Touchet (later Audley) b 1439 b 1507 m c. 1469, Catherine ? * K1. Anne Audley.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-6. Elizabeth Touchet b c 1433 b m1 Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham (fought on the Yorkist side of the Wars of the Roses) b 1411 d 1464, ISSUE SEE m2 c. 1464, Christopher Worsley.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-7. Margaret Touchet (later Audley) m1 Sir Roger Vaughan m2 Richard Grey, 3rd Count de Tankerville b c 1468
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8 Anne Touchet m Sir John Wingfield, of Letheringham, ISSUE
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-9 Ellinor Touchet, Md., Sir Roger Lewknor, of Sussex, Issue.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-10 Constance Touchet b 1443 b after 1467 m c. 1464, Robert Whitney, of Whitney.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-9 Anne Touchet b c 1445 b m1 Edward Cobham m2 c 1462 Richard de la Bere.
    -4-2-1-4-1-1-2-1 Thomasine Hankeford b 1423 m before 1437, Sir William Bourchier, 1st Lord FitzWarin b c 1412 b 1471, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-4-1-1-2-2 Elizabeth Hankeford b c 1424/5 b 1433.

    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-1-1 James Touchet, 7th Baron Audley b c 1463 b 1497 executed on Tower Hill m1 before 1483, Margaret Dayrell dau of Sir Richard Dayrell m2 before 1488, Joan Bourchier b c 1474 b 1532 +2ch dau of Fulk Bourchier, Baron FitzWarine. o L1. John Touchet, 8th Baron Audley b c 1483 b 1558 m Mary Griffin dau of John Griffin, of Braybroke. + M1. George Touchet, 9th Baron Audley b 1560 m1 c. 1538, Elizabeth Tuke dau of Sir Brian Tuke, ISSUE SEE HERE; Md.2) c. 1559, Joan Platt.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-1 John Dutton, of Dutton, Md., Margaret de Molyneux.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-2 Peter Dutton b 1459 in battle at Blore Heath.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-3 Roger Dutton, of Dutton b 1499, Md., Joan Aston dau of Sir Richard Aston, of Aston. o L1. Lawrence Dutton, of Dutton b 1526.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-4. Anne Dutton b 1520, Md., Sir Thomas Molyneux, of Sefton b 1491, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-5. Isabel Dutton, Md., Sir Christopher Southworth.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-6. Alice or Elizabeth Dutton b 1516 m 1459, Ralph Bostock, of Bostock b 1438 b 1483. o L1. William Bostock. o L2. John Bostock. o L3. Anne Bostock, Md., Sir John Savage b 1527, ISSUE SEE .
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-7. Margaret Dutton m1 1467, Thomas Aston b 1484, ISSUE SEE ; Md.2) Ralph Vernon, of Hastington.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-2-8. Elinor Dutton, Md., Richard de Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley b before 1488, ISSUE SEE . '
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-7-1. Eleanor Vaughan m Sir Morgan Gamage, ISSUE SEE . .
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8-1. James Whitney, Md., Blanche Milbourne.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8-2. John Whitney.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8-3. Robert Whitney.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8-4. Joan Whitney, Md., Roger Vaughan.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-8-5. Eleanor Whitney, Md., John Pulleston.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-9-1. Thomas de la Bere.
    -4-2-1-2-1-1-1-9-2. Seneca de la Bere b c 1486 b 1526 m Elizabeth Baskerville.
    Pl23-1-4 Ida de Longespee Plantagenet a 07.1271
    m. Sir Walter FitzRobert of Woodham Walter b c1222, d before10.04.1258
    Pl23-2 Richard Plantagenet canon of Salisbury
    Pl23 Stephen de Longespee Plantagenet b c1216, d by 23.01.1274, Justiciar of Ireland
    m. 1243/4 Emeline de Riddlesford b 1223, d 1275/6, dau of Walter de Riddlesford of Bray
    Pl22-1 Emeline de Longespee Plantagenet b 1252, d 1291
    Y
    m. 1276 Maurice 'Mael' FitzMaurice FitzGerald, Justiciar d before 10.11.1286
    Y
    Pl22 Ela de Longespee Plantagenet b about 1242 d by 1276
    HJY
    m. c1266 Sir Roger de la Zouche of Ashby b c1240/2, d before 15.10.1285
    HJY
    Pl23-4 Nicholas de Longespee Plantagenet, Bishop of Salisbury d 1297
    Pl23-5 Isabel de Longespee Plantagenet b after 1198, dsp by 1248 m. William de Vesey
    m. William de Vesci of Alnwick d 1253
    Pl23-6 Ela Plantagenet d 1298
    m1. Thomas de Newburgh, 6th Earl of Warwick dsp 06.1242
    m2. Sir Philip Basset
    Pl23 Ida Plantagenet b after 1198
    H
    m1. spms Ralph de Somery
    m2. by 1220 William Beauchamp of Bedford b c1185, d 1260
    H
    Pl23 Ella Plantagenet b about 1220
    m. William d'Odingsels b 1216, d 1264
    partners unknown:
    Pl24-10 Geoffrey Plantagenet, Archbishop of York, Chancellor of England b c 1159, d 1212
    Pl24-11 Morgan Plantagenet
    Pl26 Edith Plantagenet
    mWilliam Windsor
    PL25-2 Geoffrey VI, Count of Anjou b 1134, d 1158
    Pl25-3 William, Count of Poitou b 1135, d 1164
    partners unknown
    Pl25-4 Emma Plantagenet d before 1214
    m1. Dafydd, Prince of Gwynedd d 1203
    m2. Guy V, sire de Laval
    Pl24=25=27 Hamelin Plantagenet, 5th Earl of Surrey b 1130, d 07.05.1202
    m 1164 Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey b 1137, d 13.07.1199/after 04.1203, dau of William de Warrenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey
    Pl24=26 William Plantagenet de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey b 1166, d 27.05.1240
    m1. Mathilde Maud d'Aubigny d 06.02.1216, dau of Earl of Arundel
    m2. before 13.10.1225 Maud Marshall b c1171, d 27.03.1248, dau of William Mareschal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Pl23=25 John Plantagenet de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey b c08.1231, d 29.09.1304
    m1. 08.1247 Alice de Lusignan b c1224, d 09.02.1256, dau of Hugues X of Lusignan
    Pl22=24=Wa22 William Plantagenet de Warenne b c1256, dvp 15.12.1286
    m 1285 Joan de Vere d by 23.11.1293, dau of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford
    Pl23 John Plantagenet de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey b 30.06.1286, dspl 30.06.1347
    m1. 25.05.1306 Joanne de Bar d 30.08.1361, dau of Henry, Count of Bar
    m2. Johanna dau of Malise, Earl of Strathearn ??
    p1. Maud de Nereford from Norfolk, wife of S. de Diriba
    Pl22=Wa24 Sir Edward de Warren of Poynton & Stockton b about 1320 d before 1369
    Edward is not mentioned by BE1883 but is the only child mentioned by TCP.
    m. Cicely de Eton dau of Sir Nicholas de Eton of Poynton & Stockton
    Pl22-2 Catherine de Warren
    m. Robert Heveningham
    Pl22-3+ other issue - John, William, Thomas, Joan of Basing, Isabel
    p2. Isabel de Holand
    Wa21=Pl23 Alice Plantagenet de Warren d by 23.05.1338
    HJY
    m. 1305 Edmund FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel b 01.05.1285, d 17.11.1338
    HJY
    Pl22=24 Eleanor Plantagenet de Warenne b 1251, d 1282/90
    Y
    m. 08.09.1268 Sir Henry de Percy b 1235, d 29.08.1272
    Y
    Pl22-3 Isabel Plantagenet de Warenne
    m. before 07.02.1281 John Baliol, Lord of Galloway, King of Scots b 1249, d 04.1313
    m2. Joan Mowbray dau of William, Lord Mowbray
    Pl23-2 Isabel Plantagenet de Warenne d by 23.11.1282
    m. 1234 Hugh d'Aubigny, Earl of Arundel d 1243
    Pl24=23 Ela Plantagenet b c1162, a 1220
    m1. Robert de Newburn
    m2. William FitzWilliam of Sprotborough
    Pl24-3 Isabel Plantagenet b by 30.11.1234
    BE1883 shows Isabel as married to Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk, but TCP reports that she married ...
    m1. Robert de Lascy
    m2. Guilbert de l'Aigle, Lord of Pevensey
    Pl24-4 Mathilde Plantagenet = Maud de Warenne b c1162, d by 13.12.1228
    m1. Henri, Count d'Eu, Lord of Hastings d 1190/91
    m2. Henri d'Estouteville, Lord of Eckington d before 1236
    Pl24-5 Margaret Plantagenet mentioned by BE1883 but not by TCP Surrey or GenEU
    m. Baldwin, Earl of Devon

    Sources:
    1 GenEU Anjou2, 3, BP1934 Kings of England, TCP Salisbury.
    2 For Warenne, Earl of Surrey: BE1883 Warren of Surrey, TCP Surrey.
    3 "The Royal Bastards of Medieval England" by Chris Given-Wilson & Alice Carteris ISBN 0-7102-0025-0.
    4 "Genealogical and Historical Diagrams, illustrative of The History of Scotland, England, France, and Germany from the Ninth Century to the Present Time" by William Graham published by Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh 1862.
    5
    http://www.angelfire.com/realm3/ruvignyplus/