Ni19 Thomas Nicholas, Esquire of Roundway

    The earliest member of the family that can be traced is a William Nicholas (Ni20) who was probably alive at the end of the 13th century. William was succeeded by / Thomas (Ni19), and Thomas by John Nicholas (Ni18). John's son, John Nicholas (Ni17), and heir of the same name died in 1434. During his Lifetime the family had owned land in Roundway computed at 2/5 of a knight's fee. He was succeeded by a third John (d. 1461) (Ni16).

    Henry III died at the age of 65, on 16th November at the Palace of Westminster after being on the throne for 56 years and was buried at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex. He was succeeded by his son Edward I “Longshanks” who was 33 years old at the time.

    Edward I was crowned King of England on 19th August at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex.

    Edward I created the first English Parliament after English knights and townsmen joined the barons and bishops in a new council.

    England and Scotland were at war. Iron casting from moulds led to more artillery on the battlefields. Gunpowder became popular and more effective compared to rocks fired from the catapult and slingshot

    Edward II crowned King of England on 25th February at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex.

    The Scottish and Robert “The Bruce” expelled the English at the Battle of Bannockburn and Scotland gained its independence. The English longbow was invented at this time and as a result, plate armour was introduced.

    King Edward II was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Edward III, who was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex on 1st February at the age of 14. Edward II had been on the throne for 19 years, but proved very unpopular with his family towards the end of his reign and failed miserably as a king. He had been imprisoned for eight months and eventually died a terrible death at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, when a red hot iron poker was thrust into his bowels on 21st September. He was buried at Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucestershire.
    The Hundred Years’ War began between King Edward III of England and Philip VI of France which resulted, on and off, in a series of wars with France about the possessions in France of the English kings.

    King Edward III invaded France and won a number of battles.

    The English army defeat the French at the Battle of Crecy.

    The Black Death ravaged Europe. It got its name from the black tumors it caused on the body. In England alone, this bubonic plague wiped out close to one third of the population. It is said the plague was spread by blood-sucking fleas that lived on rats. The fleas then transferred to humans when the rats died. Infected houses were marked with a cross and doctors were forced to wear leather masks to protect themselves.

    King Edward III captured the French King at Poitiers and forced him to concede large areas of France by a treaty signed in 1360

    Edward III and his son, The Black Prince, won a famous battle at Crecy, seized the town of Calais and captured the French King at Poitiers.

    Edward III died at Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey on 21st June after reigning for 50 years and was buried at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex. He was 64 years of age and his 10 year old grandson Richard II succeeded him and was crowned King of England on 16th July at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex.

    The peasants revolted in England against their landlords and their 14-year-old King Richard II. The people were heavily taxed to pay for wars in France. Rioting took place in many towns throughout England. They marched to London, led by Wat Tiler and rioted in the streets, broke into the Tower of London, stole from merchant's houses and set houses on fire. King Richard met the rebels and promised to help them, but later he punished them.