After a reign of 22 years, Richard II was deposed and imprisoned in
the Tower of London and on 13th October, Henry IV was crowned King of England
at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex. He was 32 years of age at the time.
Richard II was taken from the Tower of London and imprisoned at Pontefract
Castle, Yorkshire. The cause of his death is unknown but it is likely he
was starved to death and eventually died on 14th February. He was later
buried at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex.
1400 - 1410:
Welsh rebel against English rule.
James I of Scotland held captive in London for 18 years.
As Winter set in, Henry IV became very ill.
Henry IV, who had been on the throne for 14 years, died at the age
of 46 in the Jerusalem Chamber, The Chapter House of Westminster Abbey,
while on a visit there on 20th March. He was laid to rest in Canterbury
Cathedral – the only English monarch to be buried there. He was succeeded
by his 25 year old son, Henry V (Plantagenet, House of Lancaster), who
was crowned King of England on 9th April at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex.
England, led by Henry V, defeated the French forces at the Battle of
Agincourt and captured Harfleur. Later Henry captured Normandy and advanced
as far as Paris.
Henry V died from dysentery on the Bois de Vincenne on 31st August
at the age of 33. He had been on the throne for nine years and was later
buried in Westminster Abbey, Middlesex. His only heir was his 9 month old
son, Henry VI, who in name was both King of England and of France, as his
grandfather, King Charles VI of France, died two months earlier.
Joan of Arc began campaigning against English forces in France.
Henry VI was finally crowned King of England on 6th November at Westminster
Abbey, Middlesex. He was not the aggressive King England wanted, and he
hated bloodshed, yet he remained on the throne for 37 years.
Henry VI was crowned King of France on 2nd December at St. Denis in
Paris in March – the only sovereign to have been crowned in both England
Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake.
The French, under Charles VII regained Paris from the English.
England lost the “Battle of Brittany”.
England lost the Battle of Normandy.
England lost the Battle of Gascony which led to the conclusion of the
100 Years’ War and King Henry VI lost his claim to all French soil, except
Calais. Also at this time Henry became ill, suffered from a breakdown,
and was unable to perform his regular duties for over a year.
Richard of York was appointed Protector of England in February as Henry
VI declared temporarily insane. Parliament gave him the right to rule on
the king's behalf.
Henry recovered briefly from his illness and led his forces into battle
with Richard at the Battle of St. Albans on 22nd May. This was the beginning
of the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) – the English Civil War between the
Houses of York (White Rose) and Lancaster (Red Rose). King Henry VI came
from the Lancaster family but was defeated by Richard, captured and imprisoned
in the Tower of London. Also at this time the handgun replaced the steel
bow and more castles were built as means of fortification after the introduction