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Bland of Northern Neck Va.
Nicholas of Roundway
Hester of Fleming Co Ky
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John Nicholas (Ni16), Esquire of Roundway,
was the son and heir of John Nicholas (Ni17), Esquire of Roundway
|Born about 1430
Married Alice (?Anne) Enoch (En16) (Enock ), daughter and coheiress of Thomas Enoch (Ennock ?Baynton) (En17)
Died 1477, mentioned in father's will dated 14 61, in which year three of the Battles of the Wars of Roses were fought, in particular the Battle of Towton. The exact numbers of those who died on the field of battle, or in the marshy fields of the beck, are not known; but there has been no greater slaughter in any battle fought on British soil.
Woodstock in Roundway
Judging from the heavy overgrowth and accumulation of earth over the
ruins of the manor it seems likely that it was destroyed long before the
Battle of Roundway that took place about a mile or two away along the right
fork shwon in the video clips.
|As a direct male descendant of the Nicholas Families of Alcannings
and Roundway he was entitled to bear the Nicholas Coat of Arms, as were
his sons and theirs etc.
Motto: Vigilantia et constantia
As seen by maj. Griffin Nicholas the original crest for the Roundway branch is "On a chapeau azure ... owl rising or" except for the head of the family, for which "On a chapeau gules ... owl rising or" applies. As the Roundway branch is the senior branch this specialty will only occur in that line and only for the most senior branch. Assuming that Maj. Griffin Nicholas was correct about other more senior lines being without male heir, his line would be entitled to a gules chapeau, if not the Barony "de la Roch of Bromham."
|John Nicholas and Alice Enoch had children:
(Ni15) John Nicholas of Roundway, Wiltshire.
(Ni15-2) William Nicholas, "slaine without the gatehouse in Runway*".
(Ni15-3) Robert Nicholas, who had three sons.
(Ni15-4) Constance Nicholas
|William would have been born about 1450 and about 20 at the time of
Battle of Tewkesbury.
So it is quite likely that he and his father and brothers were all involved
in one or more of the Battles of the Wars
The fact that William Nicholas was "slaine without the gatehouse in
Runway* makes clear that Roundway was fortified at this time, although
there is no indication of fortifications today. It is worth investigating
when and why these fortifications were removed. As things were chronicled
better before , during and after the Civil War following 1639 and easily
available for researcher, it seems more likely that this was part of the
War of Roses and their aftermath or part of the Tudor Era.
(It appears that beginning with the reign of Henry VI in 1454 the Heralds of the the College of Arms were regularly sent out to all counties of England to establish the inheritance of the manor houses and descent of all esquires. The esquires were to produce the documents establishing the grants and inheritance and the Heralds made extracts of these for the records at the College of Arms, which were included in the publication of the Visitation Pedigrees. The earliest document seems to be an indenture grant for Roundway by Gilbert de la Roch to Adae le Fovene (Fourne), which judging by the sketchy details of the de la Roch pedigree may be set about 1240. Then in 1361, Nicholas of Roundway is shown as owner.)
taken from Wiltshire Visitation Pegdigrees, 1623 pg 140 ff.
[I C. 22, 29v.-3I, 219v., 22O, 220\".; Lyte 23v.-2 ; Harl. 116 , 38b, 92a.]
1 & 4, Azure, a chevron engrailed between three owls or;
2; Gules, a chevron between three sand-boxes reversed, issuing sand or SANDON;
3, Azure, three roach naianl in pale argent DE LA ROCH.
Crest :--On a chapeau azure, turned up ermine, all owl rising or.
Motto: Vigilantia et constantia This is the right Crest belonging to this family of Nicholas1.
(In the old visitacon 1565.)
1 The crest in the 1565 Visitation is a quatrefoil on stalk raguly or charged with a raven sahle: cf. Vstt'. Gloucestershire.1623 (Harl. Soc.), p. 117.
Hac Indentura facta apnel Rindeway in Com: Wilt. in festo Sb Michis Archangeli Anno Regni Regis Henrici 6 post Conquestnm Anglia 33 (1454) inter Johem Nicholas seniorem de Ryndeway ex parte una et Johannem Hert ac Thomam Hert de Eadem ex parte altera testatur &e. Drawing of seal: A jacket² between the symbuls of the Four Evangelists.
Sciant presents et futuri qd ego Gilbertus de la Roch assensu et bona voluntate Christianae uxoris meae dedi et concessi et hae presenti Carta mea confirmavi Adae le Fovene (Fourne) de Rinway &e. In euius Tei testimonium Sigillum ffieum apposui. Hijs testibus sans Dat: .Dm",ing 0/ seal: TM", roach naiant in pale.
Pateat uaiversis per prrsents qd ego Nicholaus de Rinway accep' et loco meo posui dilcos mihi in Christo Johem Monelif et Johem Wronwere &e. In cuius rei testimonium Sigillum menm (presentibus) apposui Dat’ apud Rindway die Sabati prox post festurn St Dionisij A° Regni Regis Edw: 3 post conq: Anglie 35 (1361).
Noverint universi me Johern Nicholae custos hared’ Johis Bruton de Rinway tradidisse (et) demisisse Rico Collyns &c. Dat' apud Rindeway die Lunae prox: post festurn decollationis Johis Baptistae A° Regni Regis Edw: 3 post Conquestum Angliae 46 (1372) (Wt the seale chev. ent. 3 owls). Drawing, of seal: A chevron eng,railed betw«en three owls,
Hac Indentura facta inter Johem Nicholas ex parte una et Rieum Dokeman (Doleman) als dictum Collins ex altera testat' qd prefatus Johes tradidit &e. In cuius rei testimonium partes alternat' present' indenturis Sigilla sua ap¬posuere. Hijs testibus Simone Sandon, Nicho Adam, Johe Attwoode. Willo Hwett, Galfredo Howland et alijs Dat apud Rindway in festu purificationis beatae Mariae Virginis A° Regni Regis Rici: 2 post Conquest 6. A° 1382. Drawing of seal as above (sealed w'th the ehev. ent. 3 owles).
Hae Indentura testatur qd Johes Nicholas de Rinway concessit et demisit Rieardo Dokeman (Doleman) als vocat Calins de Southbrorne &e. In cuius rei testimonium Hijs Indenturis Sigill' partes alternat sunt apposita Hijs testibus Simone Best, Johe Pleystowe, Simone Sandon, Willo Hewes, Nicho Adams et alijs Dat' apud Rinway in festo Stae Margaretae Virginis Ao Regni Regis Rie 2 post conq: Angliae undecirno 1387. Drawing of seal as above.
2 A human head in Lyte.
Hac Indentura testaur qd ego Johe Nicholas senior de Rinway tradidit
et concessit Johi Nichos juniori filio suo et heredibus et Matilde uxori
eius &c. Dat’ apud Southbrome in festo Sti Bartholmei Apli A°
Regni Regis Henrici 5 post conq’ Angliae 4: (1416).
Hac Indentura facta inter Johem Nicholas seniorem et Aliciam uxorem suam ex parte una et Willm Bridd et Johannam uxorem suam ex parte altera testatur qd prefat' Johes Nicholas et Alicia uxor eius tradiderunt et concesserunt &c. In cuius rei testimonium hijs Indenturis sigilla partes (ptm) predict' alternatim sunt appensis. Hijs Robto Best, Simone Unwyne Simone Sandon, Willo Puanut, Wilmo Hwett (Hewitt) et multis alijs. Dat’ apud le Devises in festo Sti Mathei Apli A° Regni Rwgis H 5 post Conq. Ang: 5 (1417)
Sciant present' et futuri qd ego Johes Nicholas senior dedi concessi et hac presenti Carta mea confirmavi Magestro Simone Onewyne &c. In cuius rei testimonium present’ sigillum meum apposui. Hijs testibus Robto Best, Thomae Ennock, Johe Franke Mason, Rico Nonock et alius. Dat’ apud Rinwaye die Luna Prox’ ante festum Annunciationis beatae Mariae virginis Ao Regni Regis Henrici quinti post conquestum Angliae 7: (1419).
*William was probably slain in connection with:
4 May 1471
|House of Lancaster
Margaret of Anjou
|House of York
Gloucester (later Richard III)
|On the day that Warwick was defeated
and killed at Barnet, Queen Margaret and her young son landed at Weymouth,
and was soon joined by many Lancastrian leaders and the remains of their
fighting men. The Duke of Somerset took command of the army, but realizing
that he needed reinforcements of men and materials, decided to join forces
with Jasper Tudor in Wales. He also planned to gather military stores from
Bristol on the way.
Edward IV was at Windsor for the feast of St. George, and on 24 April he moved on the West Country. There followed a pursuit, with Margaret's army desperately trying to cross the Severn River and Edward axious to bring her to battle before reinforcements could arrive. Margaret lost some time in Bristol, where Gloucester (The future Richard III) closed its gates to her. On May 3, Somerset decided to stand and fight at Tewkesbury, rather than risk a lengthy crossing with exhausted troops. He had the choice of ground, and arrayed his 6,000 men to take advantage of it. Edward was slightly outnumbered, and his troops were also weary from their forced march to catch their opponents.
The next morning, Edward began the battle with heavy artillary bombardment, which forced Somerset to lead an attack on the junction of the Yorkist left and centre battles. (each side was divided into three divisions or "battles") Edward would have been in serious trouble, had Somerset's centre under Lord Wenlock supported him. As it was, he fought alone, and was caught between two forces. Somerset's forces were forced back, and the King advanced his troops to attack. Somerset is reputed to have personally executed Lord Wenlock on the battlefield for cowardice.
The Lancastrians, demoralised by the retreat of Somerset, offered little resistance to Edward and their lines broke. Many were slaughtered during the retreat, perhaps 2,000 died in the battle and on the banks of the severn. Queen Margaret escaped, but her son was killed, and Somerset was taken from the abbey (where he had claimed sanctuary) and executed.
The following is taken from "History of Wiltshire" pp. 191 to 193:
"In the tithing of ROUNDWAY no manor has been traced but there was at least one major estate held under the Bishop of Salisbury. From the 14th century until the 18th, the senior branch of the Wiltshire family of Nicholas held land in the tithing, their tenancy being illustrated by a remarkable series of private deeds lodged in the British Museum and the Wiltshire Record Office.
"The earliest member of the family that can be traced is a William Nicholas (Ni20) who was probably alive at the end of the 13th century. William was succeeded by / Thomas (Ni19), and Thomas by John (Ni18). John's son (Ni17) and heir of the same name died in 1434. During his Lifetime the family had owned land in Roundway computed at 2/5 of a knight's fee. He was succeeded by a third John (d. 1461) (Ni16) who married Anne daughter of Thomas Ennock. This John's eldest son, William; was 'slain without the gatehouse of Roundway' and the estate passed to his second son, another John who married Agnes daughter of John Goore of 'Hinton' and died in 1502. During the 16th century the descent is obscure and it is possible that several branches of the family were holding land in Roundway. Towards the end of the century Edward and Robert did homage for their lands in Roundway at Bishop's Cannings court. This may have been the Edward of Manningford who founded that branch of the family, and the lands possibly passed through his son Robert to Griffin Nicholas who on his death in 1635 left his lands in Roundway to his 'Cousin' Thomas. The deeds show, however, that Griffin secured a good deal of his land by purchase from other members of the family. From Thomas the estate possibly passed to Robert, one time Baron of the Exchequer and great-grandson of Edward of Manningford, who died in 1667 owning Roundway. The estate passed out of the family for two generations at Robert's death and was bought in 1705 by another Robert, a descendant of a younger brother. From this Robert the land passed to Edward the eldest son (of his second wife Jane Child), who married into the Richmond family. Their son Edward Richmond Nicholas, M.B., died 1770: a survey made before his death, possibly in 1753, shows his holdings scattered about the tithing in the open fields, in the village and in what is now Roundway Park. The property bordering on the Nicholas estate is shown as belonging to a William Willey; A .person of this name was M.P. for Devizes and died in 1765; his brother George, described as being of New Park, was Mayor of Devizes in 1758. It was to this family the Nicholas holdings passed by sale some time after 1770 when Edward Richmond had been succeeded in the Roundway estate by his son Robert, M.P. for Cricklade in 1784.
"At this time the Roundway estate becomes associated with that of NEW
PARK. Although at least a small portion of the Devizes parks had been alienated
from the Crown by 1634- and appears at that date in a survey of Bishop's
Cannings manor as 'New Park'34 the major portion seems to have remained
within Devizes at least until 1664-. From the Willey family the estate
followed the descent of Bishop's Cannings (see above) through the Suttons
to the Estcourts. T. H. S. Estcourt lived at New Park until 1837 or 1839
and in 1840 the estate was bought by E. F. Colston of Filkins Hall (Oxon.).37
It is probably about this time that the estate became known as ROUNDWAY
PARK. In 1842 the new tenant caused some popular resentment by inclosing
'Sheep Wash Dell' .38 In 1892 the deer park was said to consist of 120
acres inclosed by continuous iron fencing and to contain about 200 fallow
deer.39 From E. F. Colston the estate passed to his son Edward who was
succeeded by his second son C. E. H. A. Colston. In 1916 C. E. H. A. Colston
was created the first Lord Roundway: he died in 1925 and was succeeded
by his son40 who sold the estate in 1948. The house, the pleasure grounds,
the kitchen garden, and a paddock called the 'Home Ground' were sold to
the Wiltshire County Council who use apart of the house for Civil Defence
purposes.41 The remainder of the estate, comprising 1,584- acres was sold
to the Merchant Venturers of Bristol as Trustees of the Charity of H. H.
Wills for Chronic and Incurable Sufferers. The land is leased to farmers.42
"At least three houses are connected with the Roundway estate. For most of their tenancy the Nicholas family are reputed to have lived at Nicholas Place.43 The site of this house was very probably in the meadow that now (1951) lies at the end of Quakers' Walk on the foot-path crossing to the west of the village. That this was in fact the site is strongly emphasized by the earth¬works to be found there and by the marking of a house at this point on an 18th-century map of the Nicholas property.44 Both Nicholas Farm and Roundway Farm are mentioned as Nicholas property in 16th-century deeds45 but it is not clear whether these may be identified with Nicholas Place, with the present Roundway Farm or with the Home Farm in Roundway Park. From Nicholas Place the family appear to have moved into 'New Park' in the 18th century.46 What seems to have been their house now forms the kitchen block of the present Roundway House. In 1780 James Sutton began to rebuild the house of the Nicholases47 from designs by James Wyatt.47
The house, which faces north-east, consists of a hollow square inclosing a courtyard, which is pierced on the north-east and south by archways, that on the south leading into the garden. The main reception rooms are on the south-west, the kitchens on the north¬west. There are stables on the other two sides. Between the main gateway and a portico porch in the centre of the south-east block there is an elliptical wall with an open balustrade. The oldest part of the building, of 18th-century construction, is the kitchen block, of two stories with basement. It is of brick with stone dressings but the brickwork on the south-east has been faced with stucco. The plaster ceiling in the kitchen, panelling in Lower and Upper Oak Rooms, and marble fireplaces seem to confirm the tradition that this block was the original New Park house. The rest of the buildings are of three stories and built of ashlar. With the exception of the billiard-room they are of Greek classical design, with several marble chimney pieces and a painted ceiling in the dining-room. The panelling in the drawing-room is said to have come from Whitton Park (Middx.), the home of the first Lady Roundway. The billiard-room at the south-east end of the south-west
block was built in 1892 the site of a conservatory. There was a fire at the house in 1792 but it seems to have done no permanent damage.49
Three other holdings in Roundway are of some interest. In his charter of 1149 returning the sequestered lands to the Bishop of Salisbury, Henry, Duke of Normandy (later Henry II), excepted, among other things, 2 hides held by Gregory.50 There is no further record of this property as Crown land: it may have been merged with the Devizes holdings, forming perhaps part of New Park or it may have been returned to the bishop. Within Roundway was a property of De Vaux College51 This holding is very probably the messuage and virgate acquired by Bishop Giles from Robert de Littlecote in 1262.52 In 1543 the college properties were granted by the Crown to Michael Lyster, kt.53 and passed into the Nicholas family in 1548.54 The tenant at that time was Robert Sompnour: the Fa/ar records his rent as lOS. per annum.55 Bradenstoke priory had a small holding of land in Roundway known as Holdcroft under Cotte-grove.56
"The advowson of Bishop's Cannings CHURCHES church was considered as parcel of the foundation gift to Salisbury Cathedral of the Rectory manor of Cannings Canonicorum (see above). Thus since 1°91 the dean and chapter have been the patrons of the living.57 The patrons have from time to time waived their right of presentation or sold it to lessees. The earliest institution of which there is record names a Walter Hervy as patron in 1313;58 from 1316 to 139° the dean and chapter exercised their right but in 14-°2 the institution was said to be by them at the nomination of Thomas Southam, the lessee of the rectory manor. The canons exercised their right from 14-10 to 154-3 but in 1593 Michael .nely, kr., of Whetham, is named as patron and in 1623 John Ferebe, Rector ofPoole Keynes (Glos.).59 From 1650 the dean and chapter held the patrona ge to themselves although on two occasions, 1683 and 1815, it was the bishop who actually presented.60
With the gift by St. Osmund of the church of Bishop's Cannings went the Episcopal jurisdiction so that the parish remained a peculiar of the dean and chapter until these jurisdictions were abolished in the nineteenth century.
"The value of the rectory and manor of Cannings Canonicorum together with the tithes was always con¬siderable. In 129 I the church was valued at'c5 3. 6s. 8d. and the vicarage at ,CIO.62 In 1535 the farm of the rectory and manor was reckoned at ,CIOI. 71; 9d. and
'the vicar's income at ,CI8. 51. 8d.63 and in 1548 the lessee paid a rent of [,102. IS. lid. for the farm of
the rectory.64 In 164-9 the vicarage was worth ,C60.65 The actuai value of the rectory and manor was, of course, considerably greater than this: when the lease passed to the Nicholas family in 166o the leasehold and copyhold rents totalled 'c738. 7s. 9d. The rent due to the dean and chapter was then "cy°3. 7s. 9d. with 'c4-° due in rent and grain to the vicar. The' difference was offset in the usual way by fine upon entry into the lease and in 1742 William Nicholas recorded that his family had 'had the lease 82 years and paid 'c3,7°0 for fine beside what was paid by Sir Edward Nicholas 1660'.66
The value of the tithes was considerable: in 164-9 those of the tithings of Cannings, Bourton and Easton, Rorton, andChittoe for corn, grain, wool, lambs, and hay amounted to 'c4-2I, besides what _as due to the vicar; those in Chittoe, Wick, and Nursteed were valued at 'c9O; Roundway and Bedborough 'c78.67 In 1660 the tithes of corn in Bishop's Cannings were valued at 'c95, in Bourton and Easton 'c95, in Rorton ,C85, in Coate 'c90, in Wick and Nursteed 'c90, Tithes of wool and lamb for the whole parish were worth ,C85, tithesof hay for _oate and another district 'c4-°. At that time the vicar received the tithe of corn, hay, wool and lambs arising from the farm and glebe lands and the tenths of the tithes of the wooland lambs of the whole parish.68 '
Portions of the tithes were from time to time sub¬leased either by the dean and chapter or their lessees.69 In the 19th century the great tithes and part of the small tithes passed with the rectory manor to Sir Anthony Abdy. When the manor later passed into the hands of T.' H. S. Sotheron Estcourt he merged the greater part of tithes in land by agreement with the Bishop 'of $alisbury and surrendered the rest for the augmentation of the churches of Southbroom, Chittoe, and Bishop's Cannings. By the Tithe Rent Charge Acts all tithes due to the vicar were converted to a rent¬charge of 'c360 a year.70 In 194-° 'c4-35 was dueto the incumbent from tithe redemption, 'c4-2 from 24- acres of glebe land, and ,C2°4- from Queen Anne's Bounty.
The church of St. MARY THE VIRGIN was built in the second half of the 12th century and probably consisted then of chancel, nave, north and south tran¬septs, and a two-story sacristy. In the 13th century a central tower was added or possibly rebuilt and the porch was either added or rebuilt in the following
century. During alterations in the 15th ceritury aspire' was added to the tower: at the same time the north and south walls of 'the aisles were rebuilt and raised, the History of Wiltshire pp. 191 to 193
The appearance and recurrance of Nicholas as a first name in the Baynton
as well as the mutual relation with the de la Roch fammily and the proximity
of estates and social status allow speculation about additional intermarriages
between the Nicholas, Baynton and de la Roch families. It would also be
justified to assume that the Nicholases were called to fight with these
houses in the countless wars and uprisings between 1150 and the end of
the Hundred Years War and suffered with the Bayntons upon the fall of the
House of Lancaster. The ascent of the the House of Tudor may have brought
them better fortunes, which ought to be investigated more closely. The
fate of an esquire was always to win or lose with his overlord as price
for his knight's fee or betray him, which seldom gained the new overlord's
lasting trust and loyalty. But the duty to supply horse and arms for battle
forced him and every able bodied man in his family to take sides and fight
in every war.