|As a direct male descendant of the Nicholas Families of Alcannings
and Roundway he was entitled to bear the Nicholas Coat of Arms, as were
his sons and theirs etc.
Nicholas of Roundway and Ashton Keynes
Robert Nicholas and Elizabeth Sheldon had children:
Ni10-1 Philip Nicholas, . . . 6 weeks in Sept. 1623, no male descendants.
Ni10 Robert Nicholas bap.
14 October 1629, married 1st Elizabeth and had 5 children,
m2 Mary and had 2 children.
Ni10-3 Elizabeth Nicholas bap. 14 March 1632
"And the family pedigree further shews that Judge Robert Nicholas, of
Allcannings, M.P. for Devizes in the Long Parliament, was not only the
principal character in the story of "the Torn Curtain," commemorated under
fictitious names in the "Spectator," but, in 1642, we find him an active
manager of the impeachment against Archbishop Laud.
The entries in the parish register of Allcannings at the time of this
Robert Nicholas' birth, seem to indicate he was the younger of twins, -
that the elder, being sickly, was baptised and received the name of Robert,
on the day of his premature death ... ( correction of print 9 November
1597, and that the survivor also bore the name of Robert, which, from another
burial entry on 8 Sept. 1592, appears to be that of the grandfather). Robert
Nicholas was baptized 17th November, 1597, “Idem Robert Nicholas sepult
fuit eodem die et anno." Robert Nicholas minor was baptized 22nd November,
eodem anno-Information supplied by the Rev. Henry Methuen. While one of
the Nicholas' of Alcannings is thus seen arrayed against Archbishop Laud,
presumptive evidence exists that another member of the same family had
been his early patroness - in the life of William Bailey, of Etchilhampton,
one of the divines expelled by King Charles II, it is stated that "Mrs.
Burnegham, an aunt by his mother's side," was the person who had been at
the expense of young Laud's education, a service which, it is added, "the
prelate gratefully acknowledged when at the top of his preferment." Now,
if William Bailey was one of the children of Richard Bailey, of Etchilhampton,
who appears in the Heralds visitation of 1623, then this aunt must. have
bean a Nicholas, or Richard's wife was Honor, the daughter of Edward Nicholas,
of Allcannings" (Source: "Nicholas Family of Roundway and Ashton Keynes,
Wilts" private printing by E. Kite, located in the Library at Devizes,
Judge Robert Nicholas became a Member of Parliament in 1639 and was
one of the driving forces to impeach Archbishop Laud, which may have made
him an enemy of Royalist including his cousin, Sir Edward Nicholas, but
perhaps both men were wise enough to help each other despite the shifts
during and after the Civil War and after the restoration of the monarchy.
Archbishop William Laud, 1573-1645
Archbishop of Canterbury whose attempts to bring uniformity of worship
and the "beauty of holiness" into the Anglican liturgy precipitated the
slide into Civil War.
Born at Reading in Berkshire, William Laud was the tenth son of a prosperous
clothier. He attended the grammar school at Reading, then studied divinity
at St John's College, Oxford. His tutor was John Buckeridge, one of a group
of theologians who led a reaction against Calvinism and who influenced
Laud's later policies for the reform of Church liturgy. Ordained as a priest
in 1601, Laud was ambitious and rose quickly through the hierarchy of the
Church principally through the patronage of Richard Neile, Bishop of Rochester,
through whom he was introduced into the court of King James I. In 1617,
Laud accompanied the King on a visit to Scotland as one his chaplains.
He was appointed Bishop of St David's in 1621 and became chaplain to George
Villiers, Marquis (later Duke) of Buckingham the following year.
Laud's career flourished on the accession of King Charles I in 1625.
He officiated at Charles' coronation in place of Archbishop Williams, the
Dean of Westminster, who had fallen from favour. Appointed to the Privy
Council in April 1626, made Bishop of Bath and Wells, then Bishop of London
in 1628, Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.
King Charles admired Laud's learning and valued his advice. As well
as his Church preferments, Laud became increasingly powerful in affairs
of state. He was appointed to several important offices close to the King,
but Laud was not a successful politician owing to his inflexibility and
his over-sensitivity to opposition. However, he used his influence to secure
preferments for his friends. Sir Francis Windebank was appointed Secretary
of State in 1632 and William Juxon, Bishop of London, was appointed Lord
High Treasurer in 1636.
Laud's theology was influenced by the teachings of the Dutch theologian
Jacob Arminius (1560-1609), who emphasised free will over predestination
and an acceptance of ordered and uniform practices of worship. Laud's love
of ceremony and harmonious liturgy — the "beauty of holiness" — was shared
by King Charles, but it was loathed by Puritans, who regarded Laud's Arminianism
as dangerously close to Roman Catholicism. During the eleven-year Personal
Rule, Laud worked closely with King Charles in attempting to unify Church
and State. His attempts to force uniformity of worship on every parish
in England ran contrary to all shades of Puritan opinion. Laud himself
was intolerant of opposition and made full use of the Courts of Star Chamber
and High Commission to inflict savage punishments on his critics. In 1637,
the religious radicals William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were
tortured and imprisoned for speaking and writing against Laud's policy,
which succeeded in making them into Puritan martyrs. The rabble-rousing
"Freeborn John" Lilburne was persecuted in 1638, provoking further popular
outcry against Laud and his bishops.
Looking beyond England, Laud insisted upon conformity from congregations
in Ireland and Scotland, and even from the American colonies. In Ireland,
he collaborated with the Earl of Strafford's ruthlessly efficient "Thorough"
policy, but his attempt to force an authorised Prayer Book in Scotland
met with disaster. There were riots in Edinburgh which escalated into a
national movement against interference by the King and bishops in Scottish
affairs. United under the National Covenant of 1638, the Scots repulsed
King Charles' attempt to enforce his authority in the Bishops' Wars (1639-40).
The Long Parliament was summoned in November 1640 in response to the
crisis brought about by the Bishops' Wars. Amongst its earliest proceedings
were moves against the King's "evil councillors", the Earl of Strafford
and Archbishop Laud. On 18 December, Denzil Holles, by order of the House
of Commons, impeached Laud for high treason at the bar of the House of
Lords. On 26th February 1641, articles of impeachment were brought up by
Sir Henry Vane. Laud was accused of assuming tyrannical powers in Church
and State, of subverting the true religion with popish superstition and
of causing the recent disastrous wars against the Scots.
Imprisoned in the Tower of London from 1641, Laud was finally brought
to trial before the House of Lords in March 1644. The prosecution was led
by William Prynne, whom Laud had persecuted in 1637. Although the Lords
who remained at Westminster were unanimously prejudiced against him, Laud
defended himself ably. Even his bitter enemy Prynne could not stretch the
law enough to prove him guilty of treason. The Lords adjourned without
coming to a vote.
In November, the House of Commons abandoned its impeachment of Laud
and resorted to a Bill of Attainder to condemn him by special decree. The
bill was passed by the Commons on 15 November and by the House of Lords
two months later. Archbishop Laud was beheaded on Tower Hill on 10 January
Laud was buried at All Hallows, Barking. After the Restoration, his
body was reburied in a vault under the altar at the chapel of St John's
Otherwise the Nicholas family seem to have been mostly on the Royalist
side during the Civil War: Sir Edward Nicholas of Winterbourne Earles was
Secretary at State for Charles I and II, while this marriage between Robert
Nicholas and Elizabeth Sheldon would normally have put the Allcannings
Nicholas family on the side with Major Thomas Sheldon, a Royalist killed
in a gunpowder accident on June 11th and a fierce battle took place at
Lansdown hill near Devizes on this day . The Royalist had entered battle
with 2400 foot soldiers and 500 horse under Ralph's command against 6800
Parlimentarians. The outcome fierce but undecisive with over 1,400
horsemen killed on both sides, and Ralph delayed and sent for help.
The Prince Maurice, who's mother Ralph had saved many years earlier,
had returned with his army backed by a force of 2,000 fresh cavalry under
the command of Wilmot to relieve Devizes and the
Battle of Roundway Down followed on 13th June 1643, in
which Waller's army was defeated and to all intents and purposes, ceased
to exist, and was a major setback for the Parliamentarians.
But it seems that Archbishop Laud's incarceration of Members of Parliament
in 1639 forced Robert Nicholas to side with the Parliamentarians well into
the Protectorate und Oliver Cromwell, when he was Lord of the Exchequer.
1627 Mar 3,
Piet Heyn conquered 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
1627 May 29,
Anne of Orléans, duchess of Montpensier (Grand Mademoiselle), was
born. (SC, 5/29/02)
1627 Jul 10,
English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle, France, a Huguenot
stronghold. (MC, 7/10/02)(WUD, 1994, p.808)
1627 Jul 23,
Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
1627 Aug 10,
Cardinal Richelieu began a siege of La Rochelle.
1627 Sep 25,
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, theologian, was born.
Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to
Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for
the Indian trade in beaver pelts. (ON, 3/00, p.11)
banned contact with foreigners and closed its ports except for limited
trade with Holland. [see 1639] (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1628 Jan 13,
Charles Perrault, lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
1628 Mar 19,
Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen.
1628 May 1,
A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
1628 Jun 9,
Thomas Morton of Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now
US. (MC, 6/9/02)
1628 Aug 1,
Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
1628 Aug 10,
The Swedish 228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor
on her maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight
the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened as part
of a the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women drowned when the
ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly ornamented warship of
its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961 and the skeletal remains
were exhumed in 1989.
(NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00,
1628 Sep 6,
Puritans landed at Salem, from the Mass. Bay Colony.
1628 Sep 8,
John Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he
would become the governor. (HN, 9/8/98)
1628 Oct 28,
After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered
to Cardinal Richelieu's Catholic forces. (HN, 10/28/98)(MC,
van Honthorst painted "Portrait of Charles I."
(WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)
1628 The Reformed
Protestant Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867
it became the Reformed Church of America. (SFEC,
4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
was founded in the New World. Much of it was burned in the Revolutionary
War. (HT, 3/97, p.34)
Petition of Right was established in England
(MT, Dec. '95, p.16)
Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between
Catholic Spain and Protestant England. (Econ, 5/15/04,
1628-1658 Shah Jahan (1592-1666), a
descendent of the Moghuls, ruled India. He was India’s 3rd Mughal emperor.
The manuscript "Padshahnama" (King of the World) by Abdul-Hamid Lahawri
documents the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1997 Wheeler Thackston made a new
translation. (WUD, 1994, p.1309)(HT, 4/97, p.22)(WSJ,
1628-1695 Enku was an Japanese artist-priest
who took a vow to sculpt 120,000 images of the Buddha.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1629 Mar 2,
English King Charles I fleeced the house of commons.
1629 Mar 10,
England's King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back
for 11 years. (AP, 3/10/98)
1629 Mar 14,
A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000
puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from
King Charles I to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack
rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997. [see
1684, Oct 17, 1691]
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ,
1629 Mar 19,
Aleksei M. Romanov, Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
1629 Apr 30,
John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1629 May 29,
Arnold Baert (~74) Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
1629 Jun 18,
Piet Heyn (51), lt. admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
1629 Oct 13,
Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
1629 Oct 30,
King Charles I gave the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath.
Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting "Honor
and Virtue." The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was
part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small
oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens
also made a copy of Titian’s "The Rape of Europa," and he painted the portrait
of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel." (SFC, 2/19/98,
p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)
performers were banned in Kabuki theaters to prevent prostitution and were
replaced by young boys. The ban spawned a new breed of male actors.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.B3)
1629-1684 Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter
of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
(WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)
1630 Feb 22,
Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
1630 Mar 22,
The first American legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston.
1630 Mar 23,
French troops occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont. (SS,
1630 Apr 17,
Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (battle of White Mt), died.
1630 May 17,
Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter's surface.
1630 May 29,
Charles Stuart (d.1685), later Charles II, king of England (1660 to 1685),
was born. He was the son of Charles I. Charles II was restored to the English
throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George
Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary
foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an
end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC,
5/25/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1630 May 29,
Gov. John Winthrop began his "History of New England."
1630 Jun 12,
John Winthrop aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem. Winthrop
eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of its proximity
to the harbor. (www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)
1630 Jun 25,
The fork was introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
1630 Jul 12,
New Amsterdam's governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and
renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
1630 Aug 13,
Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best
military commander. (HN, 8/13/98)
1630 Sep 7,
The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and
became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in
Lincolnshire, England. (HN, 9/7/98)(www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)
1630 Sep 11,
John de White, Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
1630 Sep 30,
John Billington, one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World
on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to
be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following
a quarrel. (HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)
1630 Oct 19,
In Boston the 1st general court was held. (MC,
1630 Nov 1-1630
Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people
died over a period of 17 months. (WSJ, 9/7/05,
1630 Nov 10,
In France there was a failed palace revolution against Richelieu government.
1630 Nov 15,
Johann Kepler (b.1571), German astronomer, died at 58.
1630 Nov 19,
Johann Hermann Schein (44), German composer (Opella Nova), died.
Hals painted his "Portrait of a Man." (WSJ, 7/16/02,
de La Tour began his masterwork painting "The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs."
It was completed about 1634. (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)
completed his painting "Rinaldo and Armida" and the "Plague at Ashdod."
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
de Molina, Spanish dramatist, wrote the tragic drama "The Seducer of Seville",
wherein Don Juan was first given a literary personality, though it was
already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past.
1630 John Winthrop
made his famous sermon “A Model of Christian Charity,” also known as his
“City Upon a Hill” sermon. The speech was likely made in England prior
to his departure for Massachusetts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_on_a_Hill)
Island was acquired by Dutch settlers. [see 1659]
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
1630 In Hungary
Mate Szepsy Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from
botrytized grapes. (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)
c1630 The widow
of a samurai set up a business that grew to become the Kikkoman Corp.,
the world’s leading maker of soy sauce. (WSJ, 12/27/99,
p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
Jones built the portico of London’s Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
1630-1631 There was a great famine in
India. Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh
was sold on the open market. (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1631 Feb 5,
A ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts
Bay Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). (HN, 2/5/99)
Feb 5, The founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, and his wife arrived
in Boston from England. (AP, 2/5/97)
1631 Mar 31,
John Donne, metaphysical poet, died. (MC, 3/31/02)
1631 Apr 6,
Vincenzo De Grandis, composer, was born. (MC, 4/6/02)
1631 May 4,
Mary I Henriette Stuart, daughter of Charles I (later queen of England),
was born. (MC, 5/4/02)
1631 May 17,
Earl Johann Tilly attacked Magdeburg. (MC, 5/17/02)
1631 May 18,
English colony of Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and
John Winthrop was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts.
1631 May 20,
A German army under earl Johann Tilly conquered Magdeburg.
1631 Jun 17,
Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal), died.
Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), was the 2nd
wife of Shah Jahan. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth.
He build the Taj Mahal (1654) in her memory. The project took 22 years
and cost $18 million.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)
1631 Jun 26,
Justinus van Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
1631 Jul 23,
Sweden's King Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben,
1631 Aug 9,
John Dryden, the 1st official poet laureate of England (1668-1700), was
born at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire.
1631 Sep 17,
At the Battle of Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led
a Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
(MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)
1631 Oct 10,
A Saxon army occupied Prague.
1631 Nov 7,
Pierre Gassendi observed a transit of Mercury as predicted by Kepler.
1631 Dec 6,
The 1st predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by
Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
(MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)
1631 Dec 16,
In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000
people were killed.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)
d'Aviano, an itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan
friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and Protestants
in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna, Austria, which was
critical in stopping the advance of Turkish soldiers in Europe.
and Lucas, the king’s printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for
their bible misprint that omitted "not" from the 7th commandment. The fine
helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called "The Wicked Bible."
A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in Brewer’s Dictionary
of Phrase and Fable
(SFC, 8/11/97, p.D8)
1632 Feb 18,
Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, was born.
1632 Feb 20,
Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds, English PM (1690-94)/founder (Tories), was
1632 Feb 28,
Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Nov 28]
1632 Apr 15,
Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly. (MC, 4/15/02)
1632 Apr 16,
Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman
Empire forces. (MC, 4/16/02)
1632 Apr 20,
Nicolas Antione, converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec
20] (MC, 4/20/02)
1632 May 25,
Albrecht von Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen.
1632 Jun 20,
Britain granted 2nd Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.
1632 Aug 29,
English philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England. The philosopher
of liberalism influenced the American founding fathers and was famous for
his treatise "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." It was he who stated
that the child is born with a tabula rasa, a blank state. On it, he said,
experience wrote words, and thus knowledge and understanding came about,
through the interplay of the senses and all that they perceived. "New opinions
are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but
because they are not already common."
1632 Sep 3,
Battle at Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
1632 Oct 20,
Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed
the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)
1632 Oct 24,
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
1632 Oct 30,
Henri de Montmorency, French duke and plotter, was beheaded.
1632 Oct 31,
[Johannes] Jan Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress,
Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to survive.
These include: "Girl With a Pearl Earring" (1665-1666), "The Little Street"
(1657), "Saint Praxedis" (1655), "Allegory of Faith" (1671) and "The Artist
in His Studio." His wife was Catharina Bolnes.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD,
1994, p.1587)(MC, 10/31/01)
1632 Nov 6,
Gustavus II Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
1632 Nov 16,
Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
1632 Nov 24,
Baruch (Benedict) de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was
born in Amsterdam. "Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear."
(AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)
1632 Nov 28,
Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
1632 Dec 20,
Nicolas Antoine, French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism, was executed.
[see Apr 20]
van Rijn painted his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The
portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00,
1632 Pope Urban
VIII's nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled
them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino
on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their
creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was published with
the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support
Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)
Richelieu ordered the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris, France.
It was expanded by the Duke of Orleans, who in the 1800s gave it its present
form by enclosing the garden on three sides with buildings filled with
commercial shops and income-producing apartments.
(Hem., 10/'95, p.109)
1632 The British
(NH, Jul, p.20)
Univ. was founded in Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)
1632 The French
explorer Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
1632 In India
Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of
Shah Jahan, died. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth.
He build the Taj Mahal in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost
(HT, 4/97, p.22,24)
1632 In Poland
King Ladislas IV began his rule.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)
1632-1635 Velazquez painted "The Jester
Pablo de Vallodolid."
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1633 Feb 1,
The tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production
to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.
1633 Feb 13,
Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the
Inquisition. (AP, 2/13/98)
1633 Feb 23,
Samuel Pepys (d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal
and spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel
"Jem (and Sam)," about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah Mount. In
1999 Sara George authored "The Journal of Mrs. Pepys," a novel based on
Pepys' young wife Elizabeth. (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN,
1633 Apr 10,
Werner Fabricius, composer, was born. (MC, 4/10/02)
1633 May 1,
Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban, French fortress architect, was born.
1633 Jun 21,
Galileo Galilei was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to "abjure,
curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
(JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)
1633 Jun 22,
Galileo Galilei was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits
the Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
1633 Oct 14,
James II Stuart, king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was
born. (MC, 10/14/01)
1633 Nov 7,
Cornelis Drebbel, physicist, chemist, inventor (submarine), died.
1633 Dec 18,
Willem van de Velde the Young, Dutch seascape painter, was baptized.
van Rijn painted the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold
for $9.1 million in 1998. (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)
de Zurbaran, Spanish artist, painted his still life "Oranges and a Rose."
In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
John Davis wrote "Seamans Secrets." (WSJ, 7/2/03,
1633 Rene Descartes
wrote "Le Monde" in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted
publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1633 The Blessing,
a ferry carrying gold and silver of King Charles I and 30 passengers, sank
in Scotland’s Firth of Forth. A documentary of the story for TV was shown
in 1996 on the Discovery Channel titled: "The Lost Treasure of King Charles
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)
1634 Feb 17,
William Prynne (1600-1669), English Puritan leader and pamphleteer, was
tried in Star Chamber for publishing "Histrio-masti."
(WUD, 1994 p.1159)(MC, 2/17/02)
1634 Feb 18,
Emperor Ferdinand II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein's execution.
1634 Feb 19,
At the Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see
Mar 1] (MC, 2/19/02)
1634 Feb 22,
Petrus "Pieter" van Schooten, fortress architect, was born.
1634 Mar 1,
Battle at Smolensk; Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb
19] (SC, 3/1/02)
1634 Mar 4,
Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts. (HN, 3/4/99)
1634 Mar 13,
Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity
of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members
came to be known as the "immortals" and by 1998 they were struggling to
with masculine nouns of positions held by women who desired feminine endings.
(SFC, 1/17/98, p.A12)(MC, 3/13/02)
1634 Mar 25,
The Catholic colony of Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by
Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore. (AP,
1634 May 31,
Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
1634 Jul 14,
Pasquier Quesnel, French theologian, Jansenist (Jesus-Christ Penitent),
was born. (MC, 7/14/02)
1634 Sep 5,
Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden
& German protestants. (MC, 9/5/01)
1634 Sep 18,
Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies,
arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that
faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she was
brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy and
banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70 followers to Providence,
Rhode Island, Roger Williams's colony based on religious freedom.
1634 Luca Giordano
(d.1705), Neapolitan baroque painter, was born.
(WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)
van Rijn painted "Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of
Louisville, Ky. (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1634 In Oberammergau,
Germany, a re-enactment of the last days of Jesus began to be performed.
The Passion Play was performed from then on every ten years with a few
rare exceptions. (WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A1)
Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death,
the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing (Manchu)
dynasty of China. (www.gobiexpeditions.com)
1634-1637 The Dutch tulip craze was
known as the "tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs
in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber
authored "Famous First Bubbles," and restored a sense of proportion to
the inflated notions of the mania.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)
1634-1644 Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland,
father of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador
to France. (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)
1635 Feb 22,
King Louis XIII at the urging of Cardinal Richelieu granted letters patent
to formally establish the Academie Francaise in Paris. The Académie
française was responsible for the regulation of French grammar,
orthography, and literature.
1635 Feb 13,
In Massachusetts the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston
Public Latin School, was founded. (SFC,12/11/97,
1635 Apr 16,
Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
1635 Apr 28,
Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
1635 May 5,
Philippe Quinault, French playwright (L'amant indiscret), was born.
1635 May 19,
Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe
by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)
1635 Jun 3,
A French dramatist whose popular librettos included Amadis, Roland and
Armida, was born. (HN, 6/3/99)
1635 Jun 28,
The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
1635 Aug 27,
Lope Felix de Vega (72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died.
1635 Sep 6,
Adrian A. Metius, mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
1635 Sep 7,
Pal Esterhazy, composer, was born. (MC, 9/7/01)
1635 Oct 9,
Religious dissident Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts
Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). He became a founder of Rhode Island.
1635 Dec 1,
Melchior Teschner (51), composer, died. (MC, 12/1/01)
1635 Dec 25,
Samuel Champlain died. (CFA, '96, p.60)
ships carrying African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of
St. Vincent. The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with
the island’s Carib Indian natives. (SFEC, 5/4/97,
1635-1637 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van
Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ,
1635-1682 Johann Joachim Becher, German
alchemist. ""It is always better to sell goods to others than to buy goods
from others, for the former brings a certain advantage and the latter inevitable
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1635-1703 Robert Hooke, English scientist,
and friend of Newton suggested that the properties of matter, especially
gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of atoms.
1636 Mar 26,
University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
1636 Apr 29,
Esaias Reusner, composer, was born. (MC, 4/29/02)
1636 Jul 4,
City of Providence, Rhode Island, was formed. (Maggio)
1636 Jul 20,
John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
1636 Aug 8,
The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village
of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
1636 Sep 8,
Harvard College, the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge
College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John
Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of
money for the day. [see Oct 28] (MC, 9/8/01)
1636 Sep 18,
Pietro Sanmartini, composer, was born. (MC, 9/18/01)
1636 Oct 4,
The Massachusetts Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
1636 Oct 28,
Harvard College was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the oldest institution
of higher learning in the United States. It was the first corporation in
the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books
to the Univ. that included "The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World
and Flesh" by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate.
London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8]
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)(AP, 10/28/97)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)
(SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)
1636 Nov 1,
Nicholas Boileaus, French poet and historian, was born.
1636 Nov 17,
Henrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch
in Brazil. (HN, 11/17/98)
van Rijn made his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia."
(HT, 5/97, p.60)
Paul Rubens painted “Aurora and Cephalus.” (SFC,
Adams reached Massachusetts and settled on 40 acres of land in Braintree
and fathered eight sons. He was the great-grandfather of John Adams, 2nd
president of the US. (A&IP, Miers, p.17)
1636 Tung Ch’ich’ang
(b.1555), Chinese painter, died. (SFC, 12/8/05,
in Japan were sequestered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki's
harbor as the government cracked down on all things foreign. The island
later disappeared in land reclamation projects.
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)
1636 In Mexico
a city wall was built around Veracruz. (SFEC, 5/17/98,
1637 Feb 15,
Ferdinand II (58), King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died.
Ferdinand III succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)
1637 Mar 5,
John van der Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born.
1637 May 13,
Cardinal Richelieu of France created the table knife.
1637 May 26,
1st battle of Pequot at New Haven, Ct., some 500 Indians were killed.
1637 Jun 5,
The English and their Mohegan allies slaughtered as many as 600 Pequot
Indians [in the area of Connecticut]. The survivors were parceled out to
other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket
Pequots. American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)(HN, 6/5/98)
1637 Jul 23,
King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts
to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
1637 Aug 6,
Ben Johnson (65), English dramatist and poet, died. In 1960 Jonas Barish
wrote "Ben Jonson and the Language of Prose Comedy."
(AP, 1/4/98)(WUD, 1994, p.771)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(MC, 8/6/02)
1637 Oct 20,
Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
1637 Nov 7,
Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Mass Bay colony as a heretic.
1637 Nov 20,
Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed
from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
1637 Dec 7,
Barnardo Pasquini, composer, was born. (MC, 12/7/01)
completed his painting "The Nurture of Jupiter."
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)
Morton published "New English Canaan," a satiric book describing his encounters
with the New England Pilgrims.
(ON, 3/00, p.12)
1637 A King
James version of the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made.
(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)
1637 To solve
any problem, it is helpful to divide the question into a set, or series,
of smaller problems, and solve each one in turn. Descartes, "Discourse
on Method." (V.D.-H.K.p.329)
1637 Rene Descartes,
French mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to
represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome "Discours de la Methode" in
Leyden. (Alg, 1990, p.115)
1637 The Dutch
tulip bulb craze crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators
to pay off and take delivery. (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ,
1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)
II Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)
began making sake in Kyoto, Japan. The company began supplying the imperial
household in 1909. (SSFC, 9/26/04, p.D12)
c1637-1638 Peter Paul Rubens painted
“The Elevation of the Cross.” (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1637-1638 The Christians of Shimabara,
Japan, rebelled. (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1637-1707 Dietrich Buxtehude, German
composer. He was a transitional figure between early and later baroque.
Bach made a legendary journey on foot to hear the aging composer perform.
Handel also journeyed to see him 3 years before Bach. His works include
Jubilate Domino and the Trio Sonata for violin, gamba and continuo.
(EMN, 1/96, p.1)
1638 Jan 5,
Petition in Recife, Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues.
1638 Feb 28,
Scottish Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
1638 Feb 28,
Henri duc de Rohan, French soldier, Huguenot leader, died.
1638 Mar 3,
Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
1638 Mar 22,
Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts
Bay Colony. (AP, 3/22/97)
1638 Mar 23,
Frederik Ruysch, Dutch anatomist, was born. (SS,
1638 Mar 29,
The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish
Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America.
The first English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs
but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland
did. German pioneers who settled in Pennsylvania built the first log cabins
there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the
Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and
by the time of the American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among
settlers all along the western frontier. (HN, 3/29/98)(HNQ,
1638 Apr 13,
Duke Henri II (58), French Huguenot leader, died. (MC,
1638 May 6,
Cornelius Jansen, theologian (Jansenism), died. (MC,
Jun 1, The first earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass.
1638 Aug 9,
Jonas Bronck of Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx.
1638 Sep 5,
Louis XIV, "The Sun King" (1643-1715) of France, was born. He built the
palace at Versailles. [see Sep 16] (HN, 9/5/98)
1638 Sep 16,
France's King Louis XIV, the Sun King, was born. He ruled from 1643-1715
and died in 1715. [see Sep 5] (WUD, 1994, p.848)(AP,
1638 Dec 24,
The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
van Rijn painted the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)
smuggled out his book "Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences" to a publisher
in Holland. (BHT, Hawking, p.180)(NH, 2/05, p.19)
composed the madrigal "Il Combattimento de Tanncredi e Corinda."
(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)
Emerson came from England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph
Waldo Emerson came along 5 generations later. (WP, 1952,
Wytawael (Wtewael, b.1566) , Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included
"The Adoration of the Shepherds." (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM,
1638-1709 Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter.
He painted "The Avenue." (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.675)
1638-1715 Louis XIV, the French Sun
King. He ruled from 1643-1715. (WUD, 1994, p.848)
1638-1715 Dom Perignon, a French monk.
He introduced blending, vineyard and cellaring practices that made champagne
a better wine. (Hem., 10/97, p.104)
1639 Jan 6,
Virginia became the 1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed.
1639 Jan 14,
"Fundamental Orders," the first constitution of Connecticut, was adopted.
[see Jan 24] (AP, 1/14/98)
1639 Jan 23,
Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
1639 Jan 24,
Representatives from three Connecticut towns banded together to write the
Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World. [see Jan 14]
1639 May 8,
William Coddington founded Newport, RI.
1639 May 20,
Dorchester, Mass., formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
1639 Jun 6,
Massachusetts granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
1639 Jun 10,
The 1st American log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware).
1639 Aug 10,
"Ten fair pippins" were planted on Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)
1639 Sep 25,
The 1st printing press in America began operating. (MC,
1639 Nov 3,
Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
1639 Nov 5,
1st post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts.
was closed to the outside world except for a Dutch trading post.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
|1640 May 5,
English Short Parliament united. (MC, 5/5/02)
1640 May 30,
Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
1640 Jun 9,
Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
(HN 6/9/98)(MC, 6/9/02)
1640 Aug 28,
The Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
1640 Aug 29,
English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland.
1640 Nov 11,
John Pym, earl of Strafford, was locked in Tower of London.
1640 Dec 1,
Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João
IV (John IV), king of Portugal. (HoS, p.267)
c1640 In Connecticut
Roger Williams prepared the first primer of the Algonquian Indian language.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)
1640 The towns
of Southampton and East Hampton, NY, were founded. (In 2004 Steven Petrow
authored “The Lost Hamptons.” (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)
1640 The Massachusetts
Bay Company sent 300,000 codfish to market. (SFC, 5/24/97,
completed its conquest of Siberia and reached the Pacific Ocean.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)
1640s In England
the parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were recorded
in 7 tomes known as Rushworth's Collections. (WSJ, 3/10/99,
1641 Feb 16,
English king Charles I accepted the Triennial Act. (MC,
1641 May 12,
Thomas Wentworth (48), chief advisor to Charles I and English viceroy of
Ireland, was beheaded in the Tower of London. (HN, 5/12/01)(MC,
1641 Sep 23,
Adrian "Aart" van Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism.
1641 Oct 21,
A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots
were killed. [see Oct 23] (MC, 10/21/01)
1641 Oct 23,
Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants
and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some
say 100,000). [see Oct 21] (HN, 10/23/98)
1641 Dec 1,
Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery.
It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
(MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)
de Acuna, a Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the
king of Spain. (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)
wrote a statute that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts
Body of Liberties. (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)
1641 The Spanish
warship Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion sank off of the coast of Florida.
(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.8)
1641 The English
Court of Star Chamber was abolished. It had been used by unpopular kings
to enforce unpopular policies. (ON, 11/04, p.10)
1641 In Ireland
a Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell
took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)
1642 Jan 4,
King Charles I attacked the English parliament with 400 soldiers.
1642 Jan 10,
King Charles I and his family fled London for Oxford.
1642 Feb 25,
Dutch settlers slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland,
North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers.
1642 Mar 1,
Georgeana (York), Maine, became the first American city to incorporate.
(HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1642 Mar 12,
Abel Tasman became the 1st European to land in New Zealand. [see Nov 24,
Dec 13] (MC, 3/12/02)
1642 May 6,
Ville Marie (Montreal) formed. [see May 18] (MC, 5/6/02)
1642 May 17,
Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave
the name Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of mont Royal.
1642 Jul 3,
Maria de' Medici (~69), French queen-mother, died. (MC,
1642 Aug 22,
Civil war in England began as Charles I declared war on the Puritan Parliament
at Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of
its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed
entry. (HN, 8/22/98)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)(ON, 12/00,
1642 Sep 12,
Cinq Mars, French plotter, was executed. (MC, 9/12/01)
1642 Oct 23,
The Battle of Edgehill was the first major clash between Royalist and Parliamentary
forces in the English Civil Wars. King Charles I and 11-15,000 Cavaliers
held the high ground against 13-15,000 Roundheads led by the Earl of Essex
and Oliver Cromwell. The conflict began with a smattering of cannon exchanges.
The Royalist artillery was hampered by its uphill position, rendering its
cannons largely ineffective against the enemy below. As a result, Royalist
cavalry, led by the King’s nephew, Prince Rupert, swept down the hill toward
the Parliamentarians, decimating a large section of their ranks. The Royalists
did not capitalize on this initial success, however, as the troops became
more interested in plundering the town than in finishing the fight. This
allowed Parliamentarian troops to regroup and break up enemy formations.
After several hours of hard fighting, both sides withdrew to their original
positions, leaving a field scattered with debris and casualties.
1642 Nov 13,
Battle at Turnham Green, London: King Charles I vs. English parliament.
1642 Nov 24,
Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
1642 Dec 4,
Cardinal Armand-Jean Duplessis Richelieu (57), French statesman and bishop
of Luzon, died. "If you give me six lines written by the most honest man,
I will find something in them to hang him." "He did too much harm to be
praised, and too much good to be damned." (MC, 12/4/01)(WSJ,
9/24/02, p.D8)(Econ, 1/24/04, p.75)
1642 Dec 13,
Dutch navigator and explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman arrived in present-day
New Zealand. He fled after Maori cannibals feasted on the "friendship party"
he sent ashore. (NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(AP, 12/13/97)(SFEC,
Globe theater closed as the Puritan-controlled British Parliament suppressed
theaters and other forms of popular entertainment. (ON,
became a colony of the Netherlands. (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1642 In France
Blaise Pascal invented a calculating machine to ease the drudgery of his
tax-collector father. It was considered too complicated.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1642-1648 The English civil war severely
damaged St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. (AM, Mar/Apr
1642-1651 Period of English civil wars.
1643 May 13,
Battle at Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
1643 May 14,
Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father,
Louis XIII. (AP, 5/14/97)
1643 May 18,
Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power
as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king's will.
1643 May 19,
Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth,
Connecticut and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the
United Colonies of New England. (AP, 5/19/97)(MC, 5/19/02)
1643 May 19,
A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi - Allersheim
in France (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)
1643 Jun 30,
Battle at Atherton Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies.
1643 Jul 13,
In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by
royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
1643 Jul 27,
Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Gainsborough.
1643 Nov 22,
Rene R. Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, French explorer, was born. [see Dec
22] (MC, 11/22/01)
1643 Dec 8,
John Pym (59), English House of Commons member, died.
1643 In England
the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings
were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.B6)
1643-1715 Louis XIV was King of France.
"L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state). Francois Michelle Le Tellier, the
Marquis de Louvois, was his secretary of state for war. A portrait of the
Marquis was painted by Herault. (WUD, 1994, p.848)(SFC,10/23/97,
p.E1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)
1644 Mar 7,
Massachusetts established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies.
1644 Mar 14,
England granted a patent for Providence Plantations (Rhode Island).
[see Mar 24] (MC, 3/14/02)
1644 Mar 24,
Roger Williams was granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island. [see Mar
14] (MC, 3/24/02)
1644 Jul 2,
Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near
York, England. Cromwell came from minor gentry in Huntingdon and had served
in Parliament before the wars, during which he commanded the Ironsides,
a cavalry regiment famous for its discipline and tenacity. Although he
had had no previous military experience, he showed amazing courage and
tactical brilliance, particularly at the Battle of Marston Moor.
(HN, 7/2/98)(HNQ, 8/8/00)
1644 Sep 2,
At the Battle at Lostwithiel: Robert Devereux's infantry surrendered.
1644 Sep 25,
Olaus Rímer, 1st to accurately measured speed of light, was born
in Denmark. (MC, 9/25/01)
1644 Oct 14,
William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woods, was born.
1644 Oct 27,
The 2nd Battle at Newbury: King Charles I beat parliamentary armies.
1644 Pope Innocent
X was elected Pope. He was from the noble Roman Pamphili family.
(SFC, 11/20/00, p.A20)
1644 A land
grant for "The Beach" was given for a fifty acre tract that covers the
present harbor area of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay.
1644 The Globe
Theater in London was dismembered. (SFC, 8/20/96, p.E4)
1645 Jan 10,
William Laud (71), the Archbishop of Canterbury, was beheaded on Tower
Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
1645 Feb 14,
Robert Ingle, commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the
tobacco ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a
Dutch trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as
“The Plundering Time.” (Arch, 1/05, p.48)
1645 Apr 2,
Robert Devereux resigned as parliament supreme commander.
1645 Jun 14,
Oliver Cromwell’s army routed the King’s army at Naseby.
1645 Aug 9,
Settlers in New Amsterdam gained peace with the Indians after conducting
talks with the Mohawks. (HN, 8/9/98)
1645 Aug 30,
Dutch & Indians signed peace treaty in New Amsterdam (NY).
Fox (b.1624) abandoned the church in England and began following the "inner
light." He told listeners that the truth could be found by listening to
an inner voice of God speaking directly to the soul. His teachings formed
the basis to the Religious Society of Friends, aka Quakers. Believers reportedly
sat and quivered waiting for the Holy Spirit to move them to speak.
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)
1646 Feb 28,
Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
1646 Apr 27,
King Charles I fled Oxford. (MC, 4/27/02)
1646 May 5,
King Charles I surrendered at Scotland. (MC, 5/5/02)
1646 Jul 30,
English parliament set the Newcastle Propositions of King Charles I.
1646 Oct 28,
The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
1646 A treaty
with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from
"enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County.
(SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)
I licensed the Silver Cross to serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)
1647 Jan 23,
Scottish Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament.
1647 Jan 30,
King Charles I was handed over to the English parliament.
1647 Mar 14,
The 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians
during the Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian
I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand
III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of
the emperor. (HNQ, 11/7/98)
1647 May 11,
Peter Stuyvesant (37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor. The
one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to head the
Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Stuyvesant
lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean in 1644.
(AP, 5/11/97)(ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)
1647 May 26,
A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The
penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
1647 May 27,
In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American
woman to be executed for being a "witch." (AP, 5/27/97)(HN,
1647 Jun 4,
The English army seized King Charles I as a hostage.
(AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)
1647 Jun 24,
Margaret Brent (d.1671), a niece of Lord Baltimore, was ejected from the
Maryland Assembly after demanding a place and vote in the body. Brent,
acted as attorney for Lord Baltimore, and saved the colony from mutinous
soldiers and from a Protestant revolt against the Catholic government.
1647 Nov 10,
The all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by
the treaty of Westminster. (HN, 11/10/98)
1647 Nov 11,
Massachusetts passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
1648 Jan 21,
In Maryland, the first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was
denied a vote in the Maryland Assembly. (HN, 1/21/99)
1648 Apr 5,
Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
1648 Apr 22,
English army claimed king Charles I was responsible for bloodshed.
1648 May 6,
Battle at Zolty Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki's Cossacks beat John II Casimir.
1648 May 13,
Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced
to be hanged by the neck. (HN, 5/13/99)
1648 May 20,
In Poland King Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took
rule as John Casimir II. (PCh, 1992, p.241)
1648 Jun 24,
Cossacks slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine.
1648 Jul 22,
Some 10,000 Jews of Polannoe were murdered in a massacre led by Cossack
Bogdan Chmielnicki (55). (PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 7/22/02)
1648 Aug 26,
There was a people's uprising, the Fronde, against Anna of Austria, regent
for Louis XIV of France, and Cardinal Mazarin (d.1661), the effective ruler.
(PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 8/26/02)
1648 Sep 21,
In Poland at the Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)
1648 Oct 4,
Peter Stuyvesant established America's 1st volunteer firemen.
1648 Oct 18,
The "shoemakers of Boston"--the first labor organization in what would
become the United States--was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony
(Mass. Bay Company). (HN, 10/18/98)
1648 Oct 24,
The Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively
destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Westphalia, two treaties
that ended the Thirty Years" War, divided Pomerania, a historic region
that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula along the Baltic Sea
in north-central Europe, into two parts known as Hither Pomerania and Farther
Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the area west of the Oder River, was granted
to Sweden. Farther Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state
of Brandenburg. Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West
Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war had
spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the country a scene
of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword and plague. The war was
followed by great scarcity, due to the lack of laborers. San Marino did
not attend the conference or sign the treaty because it had not been involved
in the fighting, however it was linked to states that were fighting and
was therefore still at war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end
was declared. The treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state
acquired a monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(AP, 10/24/97)(HN, 10/24/98)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ,
1648 Oct 24,
Switzerland's independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
1648 Nov 2,
12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine).
Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence
from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)
1648 Nov 26,
Pope Innocent X condemned the Peace of Westphalia, which ended 30 Years
War one month earlier. (AP, 11/26/02)
1648 Nov 30,
English army captured King Charles I. (MC, 11/30/01)
1648 Dec 6,
Pride's Purge: Thomas Pride prevented 96 Presbyterians from sitting in
English Parliament. (MC, 12/6/01)
1648 At the
end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the
remains of works collected by Rudolf II. (WSJ, 7/10/97,
1648 The island
of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and
Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern
half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe.
Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the
center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often
to drink beer and was left with the smaller share. (NH,
10/96, p.60)(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T6)
|1649 Jan 30,
King Charles I of England, who ruled from 1625-1649, was beheaded for treason
at Banqueting House, Whitehall, by the hangman Richard Brandon. He lost
his capital trial by one vote, 68-67. "For the people, and I truly desire
their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever, but I must tell
you that their liberty and their freedom consists in having of government
those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It
is not for having a share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining
to them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things." Charles
I was canonized by the church of England 13 years
later. Parliament became the supreme power under the rule of Oliver Cromwell,
who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from
1649-1658. He argued against his soldiers having a voice in government
because they owned no property. He stated in so many word that government
"has always been, and should always continue to be, of property, by property,
and for property." (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ,
5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 1/30/99)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)(MC, 1/30/02)(WSJ, 2/7/03,
1649 Feb 5,
The Prince of Wales became king Charles II. Charles II (18), while living
in exile at the Hague, was recently informed that his father was beheaded
at Whitehall on Jan 30. (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(MC, 2/5/02)
1649 Mar 11,
The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French
government. (HN, 3/11/99) (WUD,
1994, p.1652)(AP, 4/5/99)
1649 Apr 5,
John Winthrop (61), 1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see
Mar 26] (MC, 4/5/02)
1649 Apr 9,
James Scott Duke of Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate
son of Charles II of England and pretender to the throne of James II
(HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)
1649 Apr 21,
The Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for
all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)
1649 May 12,
Isaac Doreslaer, English lawyer, diplomat, was murdered.
1649 Sep 11,
Oliver Cromwell seized Drogheda, Ireland. 3,000 inhabitants were massacred
and all Catholic Churches were blown up by cannon. (MC,
1649 Gov. Peter
Stuyvesant granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje
50 acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)
Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen. (SFEC, 7/13/97,
attacks and starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a
few hundred. (AH, 4/01, p.33)
1649 In Russia
serfs were made part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed
them to be sold with the land. (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1649 In Seville,
Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague. (SFEC,
1650 Feb 11,
Rene Descartes (b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: "I think
therefore I am", died in Stockholm. [see Feb 1] (Dr,
7/20/96, supl p.1)(MC, 2/11/02)
1650 Apr 27,
Scottish general Montrose was defeated. (MC, 4/27/02)
1650 May 21,
James, Marquis of Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged.
1650 May 24,
John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, English general strategist, was
born. (MC, 5/24/02)
1650 May 28,
Gilles Hayne (59), composer, died. (MC, 5/28/02)
1650 Jun 28,
Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
1650 Sep 3,
The English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David
Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar. (HN, 9/3/98)
1650 Sep, Peter
Stuyvesant traveled from New Amsterdam to Hartford, Conn., to negotiate
boundaries for their colonies. (ON, 4/00, p.1)
1650 Oct 3,
The English parliament declared its rule over the fledgling American colonies.
1650 Oct 21,
Jean Bart, French captain and sea hero, was born. He escaped from Plymouth.
1650 Nov 4,
William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
1650 Nov 14,
William III, King of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
1650 Nov 24,
Manuel Cardoso (83), composer, died. (MC, 11/24/01)
artist Jan Baptist Weenix painted "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape."
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)
painted the portrait: "Juan de Pareja." (WSJ, 12/29/99,
1650 The Fontana
dei Quattro Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was
designed by Bernini. (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)
c1650 The Kagyupa
sect of Buddhism, known as the "Black Hats," under the leadership of the
Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as Tibet's
most politically powerful group. (SFC, 1/800, p.A8)
St. John Fontbonne founded the Sisters of St. Joseph.
(SFC, 11/13/00, p.A3)
1650 In Barbados
St. Nicholas Abbey was built as a plantation house in the Jacobean style.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T10)
Manso de Contreras of Cuba built a vast fortune by intercepting Caribbean
pirates in the mid-17th century. In 1704 and 1776 his heirs sailed to London
and allegedly deposited the equivalent of some $60 million in gold at a
London bank at 5% interest. (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)
1650-1695 St. Croix island in the West
Indies was taken over by the French and then abandoned.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p.84)
1650-1700 Germany during the last half
of the 1600s was composed of 234 independent countries, 51 free cities
and some 1,500 knightly manors governed by their lords.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.8)
1651 Jan 1,
Charles II (Stuart) was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
(PC, 1992, p.243)
1651 Aug 13,
Litchfield, Connecticut, was founded. (MC, 8/13/02)
1651 Sep 3,
Battle at Worcester- Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles
II led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of Worcester.
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)(MC,
1651 Oct 14,
Laws were passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive
styles of dress. (HN, 10/14/98)
1651 Oct 15,
Charles II boarded the ship Surprise to cross the Channel to France.
(ON, 12/00, p.5)
1651 Nov 7,
King Louis XIV of France (13) was declared of full age.
1651 Nov 26,
Henry Ireton (40), English gen. and parliament leader (Marston Moor), died.
1651 Dec 25,
The General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught
"observing any such day as Christmas." (HN, 12/25/98)
1652 May 18,
A law was passed in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it
caused little stir and seemed unlikely to be enforced.
1652 May 29,
English Admiral Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral
Tromp. (SC, 5/29/02)
1652 Jun 27,
New Amsterdam (later NYC) passed the 1st speed limit law in US.
1652 Jun 29,
Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth.
1652 Jul 4,
Prince of Cond‚ started a blood bath in Paris. (Maggio)
1652 Jul 22,
Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist
forces at St. Martin, near Paris. (HN, 7/22/98)
1652 Oct 21,
King Louis XIV returned to Paris. (MC, 10/21/01)
Sweerts, Flemish artist, painted "Plague in an Ancient City" in Rome. In
1998 it held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
the "Liberty Tree," a tulip poplar at St. John's College campus in Annapolis,
Md., Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and
smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians. (NG,
Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)
1652 War broke
out between the Netherlands and England. (ON, 4/00, p.2)
1653 Feb 2,
New Amsterdam -- now New York City -- was incorporated.
1653 Apr 20,
Cromwell routed the English parliament. (MC, 4/20/02)
1653 Jul 4,
British Barebones Parliament went into session. (Maggio)
1653 Oct 1,
Russian parliament accepted annexation of Ukraine. (MC,
1653 Nov 5,
The Iroquois League signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to
wage war with other tribes under French protection.
1653 Dec 16,
Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector"
of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
(CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)
Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, ordered a wall built to protect
the Dutch settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York’s Wall Street
its name. (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1654 Jan 10,
Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It
lasted to 1667. (LHC, 1/9/03)
1654 Apr 12,
England, Ireland and Scotland united. (MC, 4/12/02)
1654 May 3,
A bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals,
while people crossed for free. (AP, 5/3/97)
1654 Jun 6,
Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
1654 Jun 7,
Louis XIV was crowned King of France in Rheims.
(AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)
1654 Aug 22,
Jacob Barsimson, the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam.
1654 Nov 21,
Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
1655 Mar 25,
Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces
in the colony of Maryland. (HN, 3/25/99)
1655 Mar 25,
Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite.
1655 Apr 4,
Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
1655 Apr 28,
English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet. (MC,
1655 May 10,
Jamaica was captured by English. (MC, 5/10/02)
1655 Aug 29,
Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw. (MC, 8/29/01)
1655 Sep 26,
Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
1655 Oct 15,
Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred. (MC, 10/15/01)
1655 Nov 24,
English Lord Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans. (MC,
1655 The first
slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)
Stuyvesant launched an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized
control of the fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked
New Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages. (ON, 4/00,
The three Cayman Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell's
army captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish. (AP, 5/10/03)
1656 Jan 8,
Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
1656 Mar 10,
In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless
of their religion. (HN, 3/10/99)
1656 Sep 22,
In Patuxent, Md., the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of
a woman accused of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal.
(HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)
1656 Oct 2,
US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers. (MC,
1656 Oct 3,
Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)
1656 Oct 24,
Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish
covenant. (MC, 10/24/01)
1656 Oct 25,
A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response
Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and
Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies.
(AH, 4/01, p.34)
settlers arrived at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s
Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution,
leper colony and prison. (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)
1657 Feb 11,
Bernard Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was
born. (MC, 2/11/02)
1657 Mar 23,
France and England formed an alliance against Spain.
1657 Mar 31,
English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
1657 Apr 3,
English Lord Protector Cromwell refused the crown. (MC,
1657 Apr 20,
English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the
Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay. (HN, 4/20/99)
1657 May 9,
William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
1657 Jun 1,
1st Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY).
1657 Jul 13,
Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert.
1657 Aug 7,
Bogdan Chmielnicki (b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000
Jews, died. (Internet)
in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious
freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance. (SSFC, 4/17/05,
1657 By this
time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was
almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)
1658 Mar 5,
Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was
born. (MC, 3/5/02)
1658 Sep 3,
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over
England’s Puritan parliament (1653-58), died at age 59. Richard Cromwell
succeeded his father as English Lord Protector. (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(AP,
9/3/97)(ON, 12/00, p.5)(MC, 9/3/01)(MC, 9/3/01)
1659 Apr 22,
Lord protector Cromwell disbanded the English parliament.
1659 May 25,
Richard Cromwell resigned as English Lord Protector.
1659 Oct 12,
English Rump government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct
13] (MC, 10/12/01)
1659 Oct 13,
Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament"
was restored in Dec. [see Oct 12] (PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC,
leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts
Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony
and was hanged in 1660. (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC,
1/16/00, Z1 p.1)
c1659 The British
Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the
stake, to forecast the weather. (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
1660 Mar 13,
A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
1660 May 8,
The son of the late Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil
war. (PCh, 1992, p.248)
1660 May 26,
Charles II (29), returning from exile, landed at Dover.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)
1660 May 28,
George I, king of England (1714-1727), was born. (HN,
1660 May 29,
Charles II, who had fled to France, was restored to the English throne
after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck,
a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of
his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with
the restoration of Charles II. (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ,
5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1660 May 29,
Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
1660 Dec 24,
Mary I Henriette Stuart (29), queen of England, died.
1660s The British
began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political
spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was
added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)
Sharpe, a British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood.
British buccaneers settled the coast. (SFC, 11/2/00,
1660 The Palacio
Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)
1660-1685 King Charles II was ruler
of Great Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian
artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the entire walls
and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One painting depicted Christ
healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem and the other was of King Charles
II. The frescoes were destroyed in the 1820s under King George IV to reflect
a new national style. One fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction
after a fire in 1992. Charles is known as "the Merry Monarch" because of
his many mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON, 12/00, p.4)