Ni11 Robert Nicholas

    Robert Nicholas of All Cannings was the son of Edward Nicholas (Ni12) and Catherine Franklin (Fr12) bur. 22 Oct. 1618, daughter of Richard Franklin (Fr13)
    "fil. et heres separates 1623"
    Born: 8/9 November 1597

    Baptised 27 Nov. 1597 (younger, surviving twin of the same name, who died 9 Nov.1597)

    Married Elizabeth Sheldon, daughter of Philip Sheldon of Spatchle, who was buried in Allcannings 13 May 1679

    Admitted to the Inner Temple 25 July 1614

    Member of Parliament 1639

    Lord of the Exchequer under Oliver Cromwell

    Timeline 17th Century: 1618 The 30 Years War began in The Holy Roman Empire (Germany-Austria) during which the population was decimated from 24 million in 1618 to 6 million in 1648.

    1626 Feb 2, Charles I was crowned King of England. His wife was Queen Henrietta Maria. (HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)
    1626 Feb 6, Huguenot rebels and the French signed the Peace of La Rochelle.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
    1626 May 4, Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on what is now Manhattan island. Peter Minuit became director-general of New Netherlands. Indians sold Manhattan Island for $24 (1839 dollars) in cloth and buttons. The 1999 value would be $345. The site of the deal was later marked by Peter Minuit Plaza at South Street and Whitehall Street.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(MC, 5/4/02)
    1626 Jul 30, An earthquake hit Naples and some 10,000 died. (MC, 7/30/02)
    1626 Aug 27, The Danes were crushed by the Catholic League in Germany, marking the end of Danish intervention in European wars. (HN, 8/27/98)
    1626 Oct 4, Richard Cromwell (d.1659), lord protector of England (1658-59), was born. (MC, 10/4/01)
    1626 Nov 7, Peter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship "The Arms of Amsterdam" had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders. (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
    1626 Nov 15, The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors. (HN, 11/15/98)
    1626 Nov 18, St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome, was dedicated. (HN, 11/18/98)
    1626 Dec 8, Christina (d.1689), queen of Sweden, was born. She negotiated the Peace of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years' War in 1648. "Fools are more to be feared than the wicked. "Dignity is like a perfume; those who use it are scarcely conscious of it." (AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)

    As a direct male descendant of the Nicholas Families of Alcannings and Roundway he was entitled to bear the Nicholas Coat of Arms, as were his sons and theirs etc.
    Nicholas of Roundway and Ashton Keynes

    Robert Nicholas and Elizabeth Sheldon had children:

    Ni10-1 Philip Nicholas, . . . 6 weeks in Sept. 1623, no male descendants.

    Ni10 Robert Nicholas bap. 14 October 1629, married 1st Elizabeth and had 5 children,
    m2 Mary and had 2 children.

    Ni10-3 Elizabeth Nicholas bap. 14 March 1632

    "And the family pedigree further shews that Judge Robert Nicholas, of Allcannings, M.P. for Devizes in the Long Parliament, was not only the principal character in the story of "the Torn Curtain," commemorated under fictitious names in the "Spectator," but, in 1642, we find him an active manager of the impeachment against Archbishop Laud.

    The entries in the parish register of Allcannings at the time of this Robert Nicholas' birth, seem to indicate he was the younger of twins, - that the elder, being sickly, was baptised and received the name of Robert, on the day of his premature death ... ( correction of print 9 November 1597, and that the survivor also bore the name of Robert, which, from another burial entry on 8 Sept. 1592, appears to be that of the grandfather). Robert Nicholas was baptized 17th November, 1597, “Idem Robert Nicholas sepult fuit eodem die et anno." Robert Nicholas minor was baptized 22nd November, eodem anno-Information supplied by the Rev. Henry Methuen. While one of the Nicholas' of Alcannings is thus seen arrayed against Archbishop Laud, presumptive evidence exists that another member of the same family had been his early patroness - in the life of William Bailey, of Etchilhampton, one of the divines expelled by King Charles II, it is stated that "Mrs. Burnegham, an aunt by his mother's side," was the person who had been at the expense of young Laud's education, a service which, it is added, "the prelate gratefully acknowledged when at the top of his preferment." Now, if William Bailey was one of the children of Richard Bailey, of Etchilhampton, who appears in the Heralds visitation of 1623, then this aunt must. have bean a Nicholas, or Richard's wife was Honor, the daughter of Edward Nicholas, of Allcannings" (Source: "Nicholas Family of Roundway and Ashton Keynes, Wilts" private printing by E. Kite, located in the Library at Devizes, Wiltshire).

    Judge Robert Nicholas became a Member of Parliament in 1639 and was one of the driving forces to impeach Archbishop Laud, which may have made him an enemy of Royalist including his cousin, Sir Edward Nicholas, but perhaps both men were wise enough to help each other despite the shifts during and after the Civil War and after the restoration of the monarchy.

    Archbishop William Laud, 1573-1645
    Archbishop of Canterbury whose attempts to bring uniformity of worship and the "beauty of holiness" into the Anglican liturgy precipitated the slide into Civil War.

    Born at Reading in Berkshire, William Laud was the tenth son of a prosperous clothier. He attended the grammar school at Reading, then studied divinity at St John's College, Oxford. His tutor was John Buckeridge, one of a group of theologians who led a reaction against Calvinism and who influenced Laud's later policies for the reform of Church liturgy. Ordained as a priest in 1601, Laud was ambitious and rose quickly through the hierarchy of the Church principally through the patronage of Richard Neile, Bishop of Rochester, through whom he was introduced into the court of King James I. In 1617, Laud accompanied the King on a visit to Scotland as one his chaplains. He was appointed Bishop of St David's in 1621 and became chaplain to George Villiers, Marquis (later Duke) of Buckingham the following year.

    Laud's career flourished on the accession of King Charles I in 1625. He officiated at Charles' coronation in place of Archbishop Williams, the Dean of Westminster, who had fallen from favour. Appointed to the Privy Council in April 1626, made Bishop of Bath and Wells, then Bishop of London in 1628, Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.

    King Charles admired Laud's learning and valued his advice. As well as his Church preferments, Laud became increasingly powerful in affairs of state. He was appointed to several important offices close to the King, but Laud was not a successful politician owing to his inflexibility and his over-sensitivity to opposition. However, he used his influence to secure preferments for his friends. Sir Francis Windebank was appointed Secretary of State in 1632 and William Juxon, Bishop of London, was appointed Lord High Treasurer in 1636.

    Laud's theology was influenced by the teachings of the Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius (1560-1609), who emphasised free will over predestination and an acceptance of ordered and uniform practices of worship. Laud's love of ceremony and harmonious liturgy — the "beauty of holiness" — was shared by King Charles, but it was loathed by Puritans, who regarded Laud's Arminianism as dangerously close to Roman Catholicism. During the eleven-year Personal Rule, Laud worked closely with King Charles in attempting to unify Church and State. His attempts to force uniformity of worship on every parish in England ran contrary to all shades of Puritan opinion. Laud himself was intolerant of opposition and made full use of the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission to inflict savage punishments on his critics. In 1637, the religious radicals William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were tortured and imprisoned for speaking and writing against Laud's policy, which succeeded in making them into Puritan martyrs. The rabble-rousing "Freeborn John" Lilburne was persecuted in 1638, provoking further popular outcry against Laud and his bishops.

    Looking beyond England, Laud insisted upon conformity from congregations in Ireland and Scotland, and even from the American colonies. In Ireland, he collaborated with the Earl of Strafford's ruthlessly efficient "Thorough" policy, but his attempt to force an authorised Prayer Book in Scotland met with disaster. There were riots in Edinburgh which escalated into a national movement against interference by the King and bishops in Scottish affairs. United under the National Covenant of 1638, the Scots repulsed King Charles' attempt to enforce his authority in the Bishops' Wars (1639-40).

    The Long Parliament was summoned in November 1640 in response to the crisis brought about by the Bishops' Wars. Amongst its earliest proceedings were moves against the King's "evil councillors", the Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud. On 18 December, Denzil Holles, by order of the House of Commons, impeached Laud for high treason at the bar of the House of Lords. On 26th February 1641, articles of impeachment were brought up by Sir Henry Vane. Laud was accused of assuming tyrannical powers in Church and State, of subverting the true religion with popish superstition and of causing the recent disastrous wars against the Scots.

    Imprisoned in the Tower of London from 1641, Laud was finally brought to trial before the House of Lords in March 1644. The prosecution was led by William Prynne, whom Laud had persecuted in 1637. Although the Lords who remained at Westminster were unanimously prejudiced against him, Laud defended himself ably. Even his bitter enemy Prynne could not stretch the law enough to prove him guilty of treason. The Lords adjourned without coming to a vote.

    In November, the House of Commons abandoned its impeachment of Laud and resorted to a Bill of Attainder to condemn him by special decree. The bill was passed by the Commons on 15 November and by the House of Lords two months later. Archbishop Laud was beheaded on Tower Hill on 10 January 1645.

    Laud was buried at All Hallows, Barking. After the Restoration, his body was reburied in a vault under the altar at the chapel of St John's College, Oxford.

    Otherwise the Nicholas family seem to have been mostly on the Royalist side during the Civil War: Sir Edward Nicholas of Winterbourne Earles was Secretary at State for Charles I and II, while this marriage between Robert Nicholas and Elizabeth Sheldon would normally have put the Allcannings Nicholas family on the side with Major Thomas Sheldon, a Royalist killed in a gunpowder accident on June 11th and a fierce battle took place at Lansdown hill near Devizes on this day . The Royalist had entered battle with 2400 foot soldiers and 500 horse under Ralph's command against 6800 Parlimentarians. The outcome fierce but undecisive with over 1,400 horsemen killed on both sides, and Ralph delayed and sent for help.
    The Prince Maurice, who's mother Ralph had saved many years earlier, had returned with his army backed by a force of 2,000 fresh cavalry under the command of Wilmot to relieve Devizes and the Battle of Roundway Down followed on 13th June 1643, in which Waller's army was defeated and to all intents and purposes, ceased to exist, and was a major setback for the Parliamentarians.

    But it seems that Archbishop Laud's incarceration of Members of Parliament in 1639 forced Robert Nicholas to side with the Parliamentarians well into the Protectorate und Oliver Cromwell, when he was Lord of the Exchequer.

    1627 Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil. (SC, 3/3/02)
    1627 May 29, Anne of Orléans, duchess of Montpensier (Grand Mademoiselle), was born. (SC, 5/29/02)
    1627 Jul 10, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle, France, a Huguenot stronghold. (MC, 7/10/02)(WUD, 1994, p.808)
    1627 Jul 23, Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant. (HN, 7/23/98)
    1627 Aug 10, Cardinal Richelieu began a siege of La Rochelle. (MC, 8/10/02)
    1627 Sep 25, Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, theologian, was born. (MC, 9/25/01)
    1627 James Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian trade in beaver pelts. (ON, 3/00, p.11)
    1627 Japan banned contact with foreigners and closed its ports except for limited trade with Holland. [see 1639] (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

    1628 Jan 13, Charles Perrault, lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
    (MC, 1/13/02)
    1628 Mar 19, Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen. (MC, 3/19/02)
    1628 May 1, A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women. (MC, 5/1/02)
    1628 Jun 9, Thomas Morton of Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now US. (MC, 6/9/02)
    1628 Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism. (MC, 8/1/02)
    1628 Aug 10, The Swedish 228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened as part of a the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women drowned when the ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly ornamented warship of its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961 and the skeletal remains were exhumed in 1989.
    (NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)(HN, 8/10/00)
    1628 Sep 6, Puritans landed at Salem, from the Mass. Bay Colony. (MC, 9/6/01)
    1628 Sep 8, John Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor. (HN, 9/8/98)
    1628 Oct 28, After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to Cardinal Richelieu's Catholic forces. (HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)
    1628 Gerrit van Honthorst painted "Portrait of Charles I." (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)
    1628 The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867 it became the Reformed Church of America. (SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
    1628 Charlestown was founded in the New World. Much of it was burned in the Revolutionary War. (HT, 3/97, p.34)
    1628 The Petition of Right was established in England (MT, Dec. '95, p.16)
    1628 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England. (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

    1628-1658 Shah Jahan (1592-1666), a descendent of the Moghuls, ruled India. He was India’s 3rd Mughal emperor. The manuscript "Padshahnama" (King of the World) by Abdul-Hamid Lahawri documents the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1997 Wheeler Thackston made a new translation. (WUD, 1994, p.1309)(HT, 4/97, p.22)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

    1628-1695 Enku was an Japanese artist-priest who took a vow to sculpt 120,000 images of the Buddha. (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

    1629 Mar 2, English King Charles I fleeced the house of commons. (SC, 3/2/02)
    1629 Mar 10, England's King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11 years. (AP, 3/10/98)
    1629 Mar 14, A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000 puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from King Charles I to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997. [see 1684, Oct 17, 1691]
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)
    1629 Mar 19, Aleksei M. Romanov, Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
    1629 Apr 30, John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    1629 May 29, Arnold Baert (~74) Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
    1629 Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51), lt. admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
    (MC, 6/18/02)
    1629 Oct 13, Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
    (MC, 10/13/01)
    1629 Oct 30, King Charles I gave the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath. (MC, 10/30/01)
    1629 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting "Honor and Virtue." The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s "The Rape of Europa," and he painted the portrait of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel." (SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)
    1629 Women performers were banned in Kabuki theaters to prevent prostitution and were replaced by young boys. The ban spawned a new breed of male actors. (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.B3)

    1629-1684 Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)

    1630 Feb 22, Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
    (MC, 2/22/02)
    1630 Mar 22, The first American legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston. (HN, 3/22/97)
    1630 Mar 23, French troops occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont. (SS, 3/23/02)
    1630 Apr 17, Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (battle of White Mt), died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
    1630 May 17, Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter's surface.
    (HN, 5/17/98)
    1630 May 29, Charles Stuart (d.1685), later Charles II, king of England (1660 to 1685), was born. He was the son of Charles I. Charles II was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
    1630 May 29, Gov. John Winthrop began his "History of New England."
    (SC, 5/29/02)
    1630 Jun 12, John Winthrop aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem. Winthrop eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of its proximity to the harbor. (
    1630 Jun 25, The fork was introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
    (MC, 6/25/02)
    1630 Jul 12, New Amsterdam's governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island. (MC, 7/12/02)
    1630 Aug 13, Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander. (HN, 8/13/98)
    1630 Sep 7, The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England. (HN, 9/7/98)(
    1630 Sep 11, John de White, Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
    (MC, 9/11/01)
    1630 Sep 30, John Billington, one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following a quarrel. (HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)
    1630 Oct 19, In Boston the 1st general court was held. (MC, 10/19/01)
    1630 Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months. (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)(
    1630 Nov 10, In France there was a failed palace revolution against Richelieu government. (MC, 11/10/01)
    1630 Nov 15, Johann Kepler (b.1571), German astronomer, died at 58. (MC, 11/15/01)
    1630 Nov 19, Johann Hermann Schein (44), German composer (Opella Nova), died. (MC, 11/19/01)
    1630 Frans Hals painted his "Portrait of a Man." (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)
    1630 Georges de La Tour began his masterwork painting "The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs." It was completed about 1634. (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)
    c1630 Poussin completed his painting "Rinaldo and Armida" and the "Plague at Ashdod." (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
    1630 Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist, wrote the tragic drama "The Seducer of Seville", wherein Don Juan was first given a literary personality, though it was already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past. (V.D.-H.K.p.235)
    1630 John Winthrop made his famous sermon “A Model of Christian Charity,” also known as his “City Upon a Hill” sermon. The speech was likely made in England prior to his departure for Massachusetts. (
    1630 Staten Island was acquired by Dutch settlers. [see 1659] (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
    1630 In Hungary Mate Szepsy Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from botrytized grapes. (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)
    c1630 The widow of a samurai set up a business that grew to become the Kikkoman Corp., the world’s leading maker of soy sauce. (WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
    1630s Inigo Jones built the portico of London’s Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

    1630-1631 There was a great famine in India. Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh was sold on the open market. (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

    1631 Feb 5, A ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). (HN, 2/5/99)
    1631 Feb 5, The founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, and his wife arrived in Boston from England. (AP, 2/5/97)
    1631 Mar 31, John Donne, metaphysical poet, died. (MC, 3/31/02)
    1631 Apr 6, Vincenzo De Grandis, composer, was born. (MC, 4/6/02)
    1631 May 4, Mary I Henriette Stuart, daughter of Charles I (later queen of England), was born. (MC, 5/4/02)
    1631 May 17, Earl Johann Tilly attacked Magdeburg. (MC, 5/17/02)
    1631 May 18, English colony of Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and John Winthrop was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts. (SC, 5/18/02)
    1631 May 20, A German army under earl Johann Tilly conquered Magdeburg.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
    1631 Jun 17, Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal), died. Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), was the 2nd wife of Shah Jahan. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal (1654) in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)
    1631 Jun 26, Justinus van Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
    (MC, 6/26/02)
    1631 Jul 23, Sweden's King Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
    1631 Aug 9, John Dryden, the 1st official poet laureate of England (1668-1700), was born at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire.
    (HN, 8/9/02)
    1631 Sep 17, At the Battle of Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led a Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
    (MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)
    1631 Oct 10, A Saxon army occupied Prague.
    (MC, 10/10/01)
    1631 Nov 7, Pierre Gassendi observed a transit of Mercury as predicted by Kepler.
    (MC, 11/7/01)
    1631 Dec 6, The 1st predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)
    1631 Dec 16, In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)
    1631 Marco d'Aviano, an itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and Protestants in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna, Austria, which was critical in stopping the advance of Turkish soldiers in Europe.
    (AP, 4/27/03)
    1631 Barker and Lucas, the king’s printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for their bible misprint that omitted "not" from the 7th commandment. The fine helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called "The Wicked Bible." A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.D8)

    1632 Feb 18, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
    1632 Feb 20, Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds, English PM (1690-94)/founder (Tories), was born.
    (MC, 2/20/02)
    1632 Feb 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Nov 28]
    (MC, 2/28/02)
    1632 Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly. (MC, 4/15/02)
    1632 Apr 16, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman Empire forces. (MC, 4/16/02)
    1632 Apr 20, Nicolas Antione, converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec 20] (MC, 4/20/02)
    1632 May 25, Albrecht von Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen. (SC, 5/25/02)
    1632 Jun 20, Britain granted 2nd Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.
    (MC, 6/20/02)
    1632 Aug 29, English philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England. The philosopher of liberalism influenced the American founding fathers and was famous for his treatise "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." It was he who stated that the child is born with a tabula rasa, a blank state. On it, he said, experience wrote words, and thus knowledge and understanding came about, through the interplay of the senses and all that they perceived. "New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.64,219)(AP, 8/4/97)(AP, 8/29/97)(HN, 8/29/98)
    1632 Sep 3, Battle at Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
    1632 Oct 20, Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)
    1632 Oct 24, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/24/00)
    1632 Oct 30, Henri de Montmorency, French duke and plotter, was beheaded.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
    1632 Oct 31, [Johannes] Jan Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress, Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to survive. These include: "Girl With a Pearl Earring" (1665-1666), "The Little Street" (1657), "Saint Praxedis" (1655), "Allegory of Faith" (1671) and "The Artist in His Studio." His wife was Catharina Bolnes.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1587)(MC, 10/31/01)
    1632 Nov 6, Gustavus II Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
    1632 Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
    1632 Nov 24, Baruch (Benedict) de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was born in Amsterdam. "Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear."
    (AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)
    1632 Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
    (MC, 11/28/01)
    1632 Dec 20, Nicolas Antoine, French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism, was executed. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 12/20/01)
    1632 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)
    1632 Pope Urban VIII's nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
    (AP, 10/30/04)
    1632 Galileo’s book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was published with the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.180)
    1632 Cardinal Richelieu ordered the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris, France. It was expanded by the Duke of Orleans, who in the 1800s gave it its present form by enclosing the garden on three sides with buildings filled with commercial shops and income-producing apartments.
    (Hem., 10/'95, p.109)
    1632 The British colonized Montserrat.
    (NH, Jul, p.20)
    1632 Tartu Univ. was founded in Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)
    1632 The French explorer Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
    (HNQ, 6/29/98)
    1632 In India Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Shah Jahan, died. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22,24)
    1632 In Poland King Ladislas IV began his rule.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)

    1632-1635 Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de Vallodolid."
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

    1633 Feb 1, The tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy. (HN, 2/1/99)
    1633 Feb 13, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition. (AP, 2/13/98)
    1633 Feb 23, Samuel Pepys (d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal and spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel "Jem (and Sam)," about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah Mount. In 1999 Sara George authored "The Journal of Mrs. Pepys," a novel based on Pepys' young wife Elizabeth. (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)
    1633 Apr 10, Werner Fabricius, composer, was born. (MC, 4/10/02)
    1633 May 1, Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban, French fortress architect, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
    1633 Jun 21, Galileo Galilei was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views. (JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)
    1633 Jun 22, Galileo Galilei was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits the Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
    (MC, 6/22/02)
    1633 Oct 14, James II Stuart, king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was born. (MC, 10/14/01)
    1633 Nov 7, Cornelis Drebbel, physicist, chemist, inventor (submarine), died.
    (MC, 11/7/01)
    1633 Dec 18, Willem van de Velde the Young, Dutch seascape painter, was baptized. (MC, 12/18/01)
    1633 Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold for $9.1 million in 1998. (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)
    1633 Francisco de Zurbaran, Spanish artist, painted his still life "Oranges and a Rose." In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
    1633 Captain John Davis wrote "Seamans Secrets." (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.D8)
    1633 Rene Descartes wrote "Le Monde" in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted publication to prevent conflict with the Church. (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
    1633 The Blessing, a ferry carrying gold and silver of King Charles I and 30 passengers, sank in Scotland’s Firth of Forth. A documentary of the story for TV was shown in 1996 on the Discovery Channel titled: "The Lost Treasure of King Charles I."
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

    1634 Feb 17, William Prynne (1600-1669), English Puritan leader and pamphleteer, was tried in Star Chamber for publishing "Histrio-masti." (WUD, 1994 p.1159)(MC, 2/17/02)
    1634 Feb 18, Emperor Ferdinand II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein's execution. (MC, 2/18/02)
    1634 Feb 19, At the Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Mar 1] (MC, 2/19/02)
    1634 Feb 22, Petrus "Pieter" van Schooten, fortress architect, was born. (MC, 2/22/02)
    1634 Mar 1, Battle at Smolensk; Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb 19] (SC, 3/1/02)
    1634 Mar 4, Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts. (HN, 3/4/99)
    1634 Mar 13, Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to be known as the "immortals" and by 1998 they were struggling to with masculine nouns of positions held by women who desired feminine endings. (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A12)(MC, 3/13/02)
    1634 Mar 25, The Catholic colony of Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore. (AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
    1634 May 31, Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
    (MC, 5/31/02)
    1634 Jul 14, Pasquier Quesnel, French theologian, Jansenist (Jesus-Christ Penitent), was born. (MC, 7/14/02)
    1634 Sep 5, Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants. (MC, 9/5/01)
    1634 Sep 18, Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy and banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70 followers to Providence, Rhode Island, Roger Williams's colony based on religious freedom. (MC, 9/18/01)
    1634 Luca Giordano (d.1705), Neapolitan baroque painter, was born. (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)
    1634 Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky. (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
    1634 In Oberammergau, Germany, a re-enactment of the last days of Jesus began to be performed. The Passion Play was performed from then on every ten years with a few rare exceptions. (WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A1)
    1634 Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death, the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. (

    1634-1637 The Dutch tulip craze was known as the "tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber authored "Famous First Bubbles," and restored a sense of proportion to the inflated notions of the mania.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)

    1634-1644 Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador to France. (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

    1635 Feb 22, King Louis XIII at the urging of Cardinal Richelieu granted letters patent to formally establish the Academie Francaise in Paris. The Académie française was responsible for the regulation of French grammar, orthography, and literature.
    1635 Feb 13, In Massachusetts the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston Public Latin School, was founded. (SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/98)
    1635 Apr 16, Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born. (MC, 4/16/02)
    1635 Apr 28, Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office. (HN, 4/28/98)
    1635 May 5, Philippe Quinault, French playwright (L'amant indiscret), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
    1635 May 19, Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain. (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)
    1635 Jun 3, A French dramatist whose popular librettos included Amadis, Roland and Armida, was born. (HN, 6/3/99)
    1635 Jun 28, The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
    (HN, 6/28/98)
    1635 Aug 27, Lope Felix de Vega (72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died. (MC, 8/27/02)
    1635 Sep 6, Adrian A. Metius, mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
    (MC, 9/6/01)
    1635 Sep 7, Pal Esterhazy, composer, was born. (MC, 9/7/01)
    1635 Oct 9, Religious dissident Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). He became a founder of Rhode Island. (AP, 10/9/01)
    1635 Dec 1, Melchior Teschner (51), composer, died. (MC, 12/1/01)
    1635 Dec 25, Samuel Champlain died. (CFA, '96, p.60)
    1635 European ships carrying African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of St. Vincent. The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with the island’s Carib Indian natives. (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)

    1635-1637 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)
    1635-1682 Johann Joachim Becher, German alchemist. ""It is always better to sell goods to others than to buy goods from others, for the former brings a certain advantage and the latter inevitable damage."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
    1635-1703 Robert Hooke, English scientist, and friend of Newton suggested that the properties of matter, especially gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of atoms.

    1636 Mar 26, University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony. (SS, 3/26/02)
    1636 Apr 29, Esaias Reusner, composer, was born. (MC, 4/29/02)
    1636 Jul 4, City of Providence, Rhode Island, was formed. (Maggio)
    1636 Jul 20, John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians. (MC, 7/20/02)
    1636 Aug 8, The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France. (HN, 8/8/98)
    1636 Sep 8, Harvard College, the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of money for the day. [see Oct 28] (MC, 9/8/01)
    1636 Sep 18, Pietro Sanmartini, composer, was born. (MC, 9/18/01)
    1636 Oct 4, The Massachusetts Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
    (MC, 10/4/01)
    1636 Oct 28, Harvard College was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It was the first corporation in the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to the Univ. that included "The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World and Flesh" by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8] (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)(AP, 10/28/97)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98) (SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)
    1636 Nov 1, Nicholas Boileaus, French poet and historian, was born. (HN, 11/1/00)
    1636 Nov 17, Henrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in Brazil. (HN, 11/17/98)
    1636 Rembrandt van Rijn made his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia." (HT, 5/97, p.60)
    1636 Peter Paul Rubens painted “Aurora and Cephalus.” (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
    1636 Henry Adams reached Massachusetts and settled on 40 acres of land in Braintree and fathered eight sons. He was the great-grandfather of John Adams, 2nd president of the US. (A&IP, Miers, p.17)
    1636 Tung Ch’ich’ang (b.1555), Chinese painter, died. (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)
    1636 Westerners in Japan were sequestered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki's harbor as the government cracked down on all things foreign. The island later disappeared in land reclamation projects. (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)
    1636 In Mexico a city wall was built around Veracruz. (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

    1637 Feb 15, Ferdinand II (58), King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died. Ferdinand III succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)
    1637 Mar 5, John van der Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born. (MC, 3/5/02)
    1637 May 13, Cardinal Richelieu of France created the table knife. (MC, 5/13/02)
    1637 May 26, 1st battle of Pequot at New Haven, Ct., some 500 Indians were killed. (MC, 5/26/02)
    1637 Jun 5, The English and their Mohegan allies slaughtered as many as 600 Pequot Indians [in the area of Connecticut]. The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots. American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village. (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)(HN, 6/5/98)
    1637 Jul 23, King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England. (HN, 7/23/98)
    1637 Aug 6, Ben Johnson (65), English dramatist and poet, died. In 1960 Jonas Barish wrote "Ben Jonson and the Language of Prose Comedy." (AP, 1/4/98)(WUD, 1994, p.771)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(MC, 8/6/02)
    1637 Oct 20, Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born. (MC, 10/20/01)
    1637 Nov 7, Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Mass Bay colony as a heretic. (MC, 11/7/01)
    1637 Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders. (MC, 11/20/01)
    1637 Dec 7, Barnardo Pasquini, composer, was born. (MC, 12/7/01)
    c1637 Poussin completed his painting "The Nurture of Jupiter."
    (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)
    1637 James Morton published "New English Canaan," a satiric book describing his encounters with the New England Pilgrims.
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)
    1637 A King James version of the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made. (Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)
    1637 To solve any problem, it is helpful to divide the question into a set, or series, of smaller problems, and solve each one in turn. Descartes, "Discourse on Method." (V.D.-H.K.p.329)
    1637 Rene Descartes, French mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome "Discours de la Methode" in Leyden. (Alg, 1990, p.115)
    1637 The Dutch tulip bulb craze crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators to pay off and take delivery. (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)
    1637 Ferdinand II Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died. (WUD, 1994, p.524)
    1637 Gekkeikan began making sake in Kyoto, Japan. The company began supplying the imperial household in 1909. (SSFC, 9/26/04, p.D12)
    c1637-1638 Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Elevation of the Cross.” (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
    1637-1638 The Christians of Shimabara, Japan, rebelled. (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
    1637-1707 Dietrich Buxtehude, German composer. He was a transitional figure between early and later baroque. Bach made a legendary journey on foot to hear the aging composer perform. Handel also journeyed to see him 3 years before Bach. His works include Jubilate Domino and the Trio Sonata for violin, gamba and continuo.
    (EMN, 1/96, p.1)

    1638 Jan 5, Petition in Recife, Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues. (MC, 1/5/02)
    1638 Feb 28, Scottish Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh. (MC, 2/28/02)
    1638 Feb 28, Henri duc de Rohan, French soldier, Huguenot leader, died. (MC, 2/28/02)
    1638 Mar 3, Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
    1638 Mar 22, Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (AP, 3/22/97)
    1638 Mar 23, Frederik Ruysch, Dutch anatomist, was born. (SS, 3/23/02)
    1638 Mar 29, The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America. The first English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers who settled in Pennsylvania built the first log cabins there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and by the time of the American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among settlers all along the western frontier. (HN, 3/29/98)(HNQ, 9/15/99)
    1638 Apr 13, Duke Henri II (58), French Huguenot leader, died. (MC, 4/13/02)
    1638 May 6, Cornelius Jansen, theologian (Jansenism), died. (MC, 5/6/02)
    1638 Jun 1, The first earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass. (DTnet, 6/1/97)
    1638 Aug 9, Jonas Bronck of Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx. (MC, 8/9/02)
    1638 Sep 5, Louis XIV, "The Sun King" (1643-1715) of France, was born. He built the palace at Versailles. [see Sep 16] (HN, 9/5/98)
    1638 Sep 16, France's King Louis XIV, the Sun King, was born. He ruled from 1643-1715 and died in 1715. [see Sep 5] (WUD, 1994, p.848)(AP, 9/16/97)
    1638 Dec 24, The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia. (HN, 12/24/98)
    1638 Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor. (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)
    1638 Galileo smuggled out his book "Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences" to a publisher in Holland. (BHT, Hawking, p.180)(NH, 2/05, p.19)
    1638 Monteverdi composed the madrigal "Il Combattimento de Tanncredi e Corinda." (WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)
    1638 Thomas Emerson came from England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson came along 5 generations later. (WP, 1952, p.39)
    1638 Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael, b.1566) , Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included "The Adoration of the Shepherds." (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)
    1638-1709 Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter. He painted "The Avenue." (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.675)
    1638-1715 Louis XIV, the French Sun King. He ruled from 1643-1715. (WUD, 1994, p.848)
    1638-1715 Dom Perignon, a French monk. He introduced blending, vineyard and cellaring practices that made champagne a better wine. (Hem., 10/97, p.104)

    1639 Jan 6, Virginia became the 1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed. (MC, 1/6/02)
    1639 Jan 14, "Fundamental Orders," the first constitution of Connecticut, was adopted. [see Jan 24] (AP, 1/14/98)
    1639 Jan 23, Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake. (MC, 1/23/02)
    1639 Jan 24, Representatives from three Connecticut towns banded together to write the Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World. [see Jan 14]
    (HN, 1/24/99)
    1639 May 8, William Coddington founded Newport, RI.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
    1639 May 20, Dorchester, Mass., formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
    1639 Jun 6, Massachusetts granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
    1639 Jun 10, The 1st American log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware). (MC, 6/10/02)
    1639 Aug 10, "Ten fair pippins" were planted on Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor. (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)
    1639 Sep 25, The 1st printing press in America began operating. (MC, 9/25/01)
    1639 Nov 3, Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)
    1639 Nov 5, 1st post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts. (MC, 11/5/01)
    1639 Japan was closed to the outside world except for a Dutch trading post. (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

    1640 May 5, English Short Parliament united. (MC, 5/5/02)
    1640 May 30, Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
    (, 5/15/04, p.81)
    1640 Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born. (HN 6/9/98)(MC, 6/9/02)
    1640 Aug 28, The Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians. (HTNet, 8/28/99)
    1640 Aug 29, English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland. (MC, 8/29/01)
    1640 Nov 11, John Pym, earl of Strafford, was locked in Tower of London. (MC, 11/11/01)
    1640 Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of Portugal. (HoS, p.267)
    c1640 In Connecticut Roger Williams prepared the first primer of the Algonquian Indian language. (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)
    1640 The towns of Southampton and East Hampton, NY, were founded. (In 2004 Steven Petrow authored “The Lost Hamptons.” (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)
    1640 The Massachusetts Bay Company sent 300,000 codfish to market. (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)
    1640 Russia completed its conquest of Siberia and reached the Pacific Ocean.
    (ON, 2/04, p.5)
    1640s In England the parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were recorded in 7 tomes known as Rushworth's Collections. (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)

    1641 Feb 16, English king Charles I accepted the Triennial Act. (MC, 2/16/02)
    1641 May 12, Thomas Wentworth (48), chief advisor to Charles I and English viceroy of Ireland, was beheaded in the Tower of London. (HN, 5/12/01)(MC, 5/12/02)`
    1641 Sep 23, Adrian "Aart" van Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism. (MC, 9/23/01)
    1641 Oct 21, A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were killed. [see Oct 23] (MC, 10/21/01)
    1641 Oct 23, Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some say 100,000). [see Oct 21] (HN, 10/23/98)
    1641 Dec 1, Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661. (MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)
    1641 Cristoval de Acuna, a Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the king of Spain. (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)
    1641 Puritans wrote a statute that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts Body of Liberties. (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)
    1641 The Spanish warship Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion sank off of the coast of Florida. (AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.8)
    1641 The English Court of Star Chamber was abolished. It had been used by unpopular kings to enforce unpopular policies. (ON, 11/04, p.10)
    1641 In Ireland a Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties. (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

    1642 Jan 4, King Charles I attacked the English parliament with 400 soldiers. (MC, 1/4/02)
    1642 Jan 10, King Charles I and his family fled London for Oxford. (MC, 1/10/02)
    1642 Feb 25, Dutch settlers slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers. (HN, 2/25/99)
    1642 Mar 1, Georgeana (York), Maine, became the first American city to incorporate. (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
    1642 Mar 12, Abel Tasman became the 1st European to land in New Zealand. [see Nov 24, Dec 13] (MC, 3/12/02)
    1642 May 6, Ville Marie (Montreal) formed. [see May 18] (MC, 5/6/02)
    1642 May 17, Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of mont Royal.
    1642 Jul 3, Maria de' Medici (~69), French queen-mother, died. (MC, 7/3/02)
    1642 Aug 22, Civil war in England began as Charles I declared war on the Puritan Parliament at Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry. (HN, 8/22/98)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)(ON, 12/00, p.1)
    1642 Sep 12, Cinq Mars, French plotter, was executed. (MC, 9/12/01)
    1642 Oct 23, The Battle of Edgehill was the first major clash between Royalist and Parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. King Charles I and 11-15,000 Cavaliers held the high ground against 13-15,000 Roundheads led by the Earl of Essex and Oliver Cromwell. The conflict began with a smattering of cannon exchanges. The Royalist artillery was hampered by its uphill position, rendering its cannons largely ineffective against the enemy below. As a result, Royalist cavalry, led by the King’s nephew, Prince Rupert, swept down the hill toward the Parliamentarians, decimating a large section of their ranks. The Royalists did not capitalize on this initial success, however, as the troops became more interested in plundering the town than in finishing the fight. This allowed Parliamentarian troops to regroup and break up enemy formations. After several hours of hard fighting, both sides withdrew to their original positions, leaving a field scattered with debris and casualties. (HNQ, 6/16/01)
    1642 Nov 13, Battle at Turnham Green, London: King Charles I vs. English parliament. (MC, 11/13/01)
    1642 Nov 24, Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania). (MC, 11/24/01)
    1642 Dec 4, Cardinal Armand-Jean Duplessis Richelieu (57), French statesman and bishop of Luzon, died. "If you give me six lines written by the most honest man, I will find something in them to hang him." "He did too much harm to be praised, and too much good to be damned." (MC, 12/4/01)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)(Econ, 1/24/04, p.75)
    1642 Dec 13, Dutch navigator and explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman arrived in present-day New Zealand. He fled after Maori cannibals feasted on the "friendship party" he sent ashore. (NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(AP, 12/13/97)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T4)
    1642 London's Globe theater closed as the Puritan-controlled British Parliament suppressed theaters and other forms of popular entertainment. (ON, 11/03, p.2)
    1642 Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands. (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
    1642 In France Blaise Pascal invented a calculating machine to ease the drudgery of his tax-collector father. It was considered too complicated. (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
    1642-1648 The English civil war severely damaged St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
    1642-1651 Period of English civil wars. (V.D.-H.K.p.218)

    1643 May 13, Battle at Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
    1643 May 14, Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII. (AP, 5/14/97)
    1643 May 18, Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king's will. (HN, 5/18/99)
    1643 May 19, Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the United Colonies of New England. (AP, 5/19/97)(MC, 5/19/02)
    1643 May 19, A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi - Allersheim in France (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)
    1643 Jun 30, Battle at Atherton Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies. (MC, 6/30/02)
    1643 Jul 13, In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down. (HN, 7/13/98)
    1643 Jul 27, Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Gainsborough. (MC, 7/27/02)
    1643 Nov 22, Rene R. Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, French explorer, was born. [see Dec 22] (MC, 11/22/01)
    1643 Dec 8, John Pym (59), English House of Commons member, died. (MC, 12/8/01)
    1643 In England the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire. (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.B6)
    1643-1715 Louis XIV was King of France. "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state). Francois Michelle Le Tellier, the Marquis de Louvois, was his secretary of state for war. A portrait of the Marquis was painted by Herault. (WUD, 1994, p.848)(SFC,10/23/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)
    1644 Mar 7, Massachusetts established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies. (MC, 3/7/02)
    1644 Mar 14, England granted a patent for Providence Plantations (Rhode Island). [see Mar 24] (MC, 3/14/02)
    1644 Mar 24, Roger Williams was granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island. [see Mar 14] (MC, 3/24/02)
    1644 Jul 2, Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England. Cromwell came from minor gentry in Huntingdon and had served in Parliament before the wars, during which he commanded the Ironsides, a cavalry regiment famous for its discipline and tenacity. Although he had had no previous military experience, he showed amazing courage and tactical brilliance, particularly at the Battle of Marston Moor. (HN, 7/2/98)(HNQ, 8/8/00)
    1644 Sep 2, At the Battle at Lostwithiel: Robert Devereux's infantry surrendered. (MC, 9/2/01)
    1644 Sep 25, Olaus Rímer, 1st to accurately measured speed of light, was born in Denmark. (MC, 9/25/01)
    1644 Oct 14, William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woods, was born. (HN, 10/14/98)
    1644 Oct 27, The 2nd Battle at Newbury: King Charles I beat parliamentary armies. (MC, 10/27/01)
    1644 Pope Innocent X was elected Pope. He was from the noble Roman Pamphili family. (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A20)
    1644 A land grant for "The Beach" was given for a fifty acre tract that covers the present harbor area of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay. (SMBA, 1996)
    1644 The Globe Theater in London was dismembered. (SFC, 8/20/96, p.E4)
    1645 Jan 10, William Laud (71), the Archbishop of Canterbury, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament. (HN, 1/10/99)
    1645 Feb 14, Robert Ingle, commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the tobacco ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a Dutch trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as “The Plundering Time.” (Arch, 1/05, p.48)
    1645 Apr 2, Robert Devereux resigned as parliament supreme commander. (MC, 4/2/02)
    1645 Jun 14, Oliver Cromwell’s army routed the King’s army at Naseby. (HN, 6/14/98)
    1645 Aug 9, Settlers in New Amsterdam gained peace with the Indians after conducting talks with the Mohawks. (HN, 8/9/98)
    1645 Aug 30, Dutch & Indians signed peace treaty in New Amsterdam (NY). (MC, 8/30/01)

    1646 George Fox (b.1624) abandoned the church in England and began following the "inner light." He told listeners that the truth could be found by listening to an inner voice of God speaking directly to the soul. His teachings formed the basis to the Religious Society of Friends, aka Quakers. Believers reportedly sat and quivered waiting for the Holy Spirit to move them to speak. (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)
    1646 Feb 28, Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church. (MC, 2/28/02)
    1646 Apr 27, King Charles I fled Oxford. (MC, 4/27/02)
    1646 May 5, King Charles I surrendered at Scotland. (MC, 5/5/02)
    1646 Jul 30, English parliament set the Newcastle Propositions of King Charles I.
    (MC, 7/30/02)
    1646 Oct 28, The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts. (MC, 10/28/01)
    1646 A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County. (SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)
    1646 Charles I licensed the Silver Cross to serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

    1647 Jan 23, Scottish Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament. (MC, 1/23/02)
    1647 Jan 30, King Charles I was handed over to the English parliament. (MC, 1/30/02)
    1647 Mar 14, The 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of the emperor. (HNQ, 11/7/98)
    1647 May 11, Peter Stuyvesant (37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor. The one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to head the Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Stuyvesant lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean in 1644. (AP, 5/11/97)(ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)
    1647 May 26, A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense. (HN, 5/26/99)
    1647 May 27, In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a "witch." (AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)
    1647 Jun 4, The English army seized King Charles I as a hostage. (AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)
    1647 Jun 24, Margaret Brent (d.1671), a niece of Lord Baltimore, was ejected from the Maryland Assembly after demanding a place and vote in the body. Brent, acted as attorney for Lord Baltimore, and saved the colony from mutinous soldiers and from a Protestant revolt against the Catholic government. (AP, 6/24/97)(
    1647 Nov 10, The all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster. (HN, 11/10/98)
    1647 Nov 11, Massachusetts passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

    1648 Jan 21, In Maryland, the first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was denied a vote in the Maryland Assembly. (HN, 1/21/99)
    1648 Apr 5, Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples. (MC, 4/5/02)
    1648 Apr 22, English army claimed king Charles I was responsible for bloodshed.
    (MC, 4/22/02)
    1648 May 6, Battle at Zolty Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki's Cossacks beat John II Casimir. (MC, 5/6/02)
    1648 May 13, Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck. (HN, 5/13/99)
    1648 May 20, In Poland King Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took rule as John Casimir II. (PCh, 1992, p.241)
    1648 Jun 24, Cossacks slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine. (MC, 6/24/02)
    1648 Jul 22, Some 10,000 Jews of Polannoe were murdered in a massacre led by Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki (55). (PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 7/22/02)
    1648 Aug 26, There was a people's uprising, the Fronde, against Anna of Austria, regent for Louis XIV of France, and Cardinal Mazarin (d.1661), the effective ruler. (PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 8/26/02)
    1648 Sep 21, In Poland at the Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir. (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)
    1648 Oct 4, Peter Stuyvesant established America's 1st volunteer firemen. (MC, 10/4/01)
    1648 Oct 18, The "shoemakers of Boston"--the first labor organization in what would become the United States--was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). (HN, 10/18/98)
    1648 Oct 24, The Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Westphalia, two treaties that ended the Thirty Years" War, divided Pomerania, a historic region that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula along the Baltic Sea in north-central Europe, into two parts known as Hither Pomerania and Farther Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the area west of the Oder River, was granted to Sweden. Farther Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state of Brandenburg. Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war had spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the country a scene of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword and plague. The war was followed by great scarcity, due to the lack of laborers. San Marino did not attend the conference or sign the treaty because it had not been involved in the fighting, however it was linked to states that were fighting and was therefore still at war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end was declared. The treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state acquired a monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars. (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(AP, 10/24/97)(HN, 10/24/98)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ, 10/6/99)
    1648 Oct 24, Switzerland's independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
    (MC, 10/24/01)
    1648 Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes. (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)
    1648 Nov 26, Pope Innocent X condemned the Peace of Westphalia, which ended 30 Years War one month earlier. (AP, 11/26/02)
    1648 Nov 30, English army captured King Charles I. (MC, 11/30/01)
    1648 Dec 6, Pride's Purge: Thomas Pride prevented 96 Presbyterians from sitting in English Parliament. (MC, 12/6/01)
    1648 At the end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of works collected by Rudolf II. (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)
    1648 The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share. (NH, 10/96, p.60)(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T6)

    1649 Jan 30, King Charles I of England, who ruled from 1625-1649, was beheaded for treason at Banqueting House, Whitehall, by the hangman Richard Brandon. He lost his capital trial by one vote, 68-67. "For the people, and I truly desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever, but I must tell you that their liberty and their freedom consists in having of government those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having a share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things." Charles I was canonized by the church of England 13 years later. Parliament became the supreme power under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658. He argued against his soldiers having a voice in government because they owned no property. He stated in so many word that government "has always been, and should always continue to be, of property, by property, and for property." (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 1/30/99)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)(MC, 1/30/02)(WSJ, 2/7/03, p.W13)
    1649 Feb 5, The Prince of Wales became king Charles II. Charles II (18), while living in exile at the Hague, was recently informed that his father was beheaded at Whitehall on Jan 30. (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(MC, 2/5/02)
    1649 Mar 11, The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government. (HN, 3/11/99) (WUD, 1994, p.1652)(AP, 4/5/99)
    1649 Apr 5, John Winthrop (61), 1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see Mar 26] (MC, 4/5/02)
    1649 Apr 9, James Scott Duke of Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and pretender to the throne of James II (HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)
    1649 Apr 21, The Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly. (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)
    1649 May 12, Isaac Doreslaer, English lawyer, diplomat, was murdered. (MC, 5/12/02)
    1649 Sep 11, Oliver Cromwell seized Drogheda, Ireland. 3,000 inhabitants were massacred and all Catholic Churches were blown up by cannon. (MC, 9/11/01)
    1649 Gov. Peter Stuyvesant granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje 50 acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan. (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)
    1649 Marblehead, Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen. (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)
    1649 Iroquois attacks and starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a few hundred. (AH, 4/01, p.33)
    1649 In Russia serfs were made part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed them to be sold with the land. (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
    1649 In Seville, Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague. (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)

    1650 Feb 11, Rene Descartes (b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: "I think therefore I am", died in Stockholm. [see Feb 1] (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(MC, 2/11/02)
    1650 Apr 27, Scottish general Montrose was defeated. (MC, 4/27/02)
    1650 May 21, James, Marquis of Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged. (MC, 5/21/02)
    1650 May 24, John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, English general strategist, was born. (MC, 5/24/02)
    1650 May 28, Gilles Hayne (59), composer, died. (MC, 5/28/02)
    1650 Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men. (HNQ, 8/8/00)
    1650 Sep 3, The English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar. (HN, 9/3/98)
    1650 Sep, Peter Stuyvesant traveled from New Amsterdam to Hartford, Conn., to negotiate boundaries for their colonies. (ON, 4/00, p.1)
    1650 Oct 3, The English parliament declared its rule over the fledgling American colonies. (MC, 10/3/01)
    1650 Oct 21, Jean Bart, French captain and sea hero, was born. He escaped from Plymouth. (MC, 10/21/01)
    1650 Nov 4, William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14] (HN, 11/4/98)
    1650 Nov 14, William III, King of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
    (HN, 11/14/98)
    1650 Nov 24, Manuel Cardoso (83), composer, died. (MC, 11/24/01)
    c1650 Dutch artist Jan Baptist Weenix painted "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape." (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)
    c1650 Velazquez painted the portrait: "Juan de Pareja." (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
    1650 The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was designed by Bernini. (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)
    c1650 The Kagyupa sect of Buddhism, known as the "Black Hats," under the leadership of the Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as Tibet's most politically powerful group. (SFC, 1/800, p.A8)
    c1650 Mother St. John Fontbonne founded the Sisters of St. Joseph. (SFC, 11/13/00, p.A3)
    1650 In Barbados St. Nicholas Abbey was built as a plantation house in the Jacobean style. (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T10)
    c1650 Andres Manso de Contreras of Cuba built a vast fortune by intercepting Caribbean pirates in the mid-17th century. In 1704 and 1776 his heirs sailed to London and allegedly deposited the equivalent of some $60 million in gold at a London bank at 5% interest. (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)
    1650-1695 St. Croix island in the West Indies was taken over by the French and then abandoned. (NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p.84)
    1650-1700 Germany during the last half of the 1600s was composed of 234 independent countries, 51 free cities and some 1,500 knightly manors governed by their lords. (SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.8)

    1651 Jan 1, Charles II (Stuart) was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. (PC, 1992, p.243)
    1651 Aug 13, Litchfield, Connecticut, was founded. (MC, 8/13/02)
    1651 Sep 3, Battle at Worcester- Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles II led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of Worcester.
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)(MC, 9/3/01)
    1651 Oct 14, Laws were passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of dress. (HN, 10/14/98)
    1651 Oct 15, Charles II boarded the ship Surprise to cross the Channel to France.
    (ON, 12/00, p.5)
    1651 Nov 7, King Louis XIV of France (13) was declared of full age. (MC, 11/7/01)
    1651 Nov 26, Henry Ireton (40), English gen. and parliament leader (Marston Moor), died. (MC, 11/26/01)
    1651 Dec 25, The General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught "observing any such day as Christmas." (HN, 12/25/98)

    1652 May 18, A law was passed in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it caused little stir and seemed unlikely to be enforced. (HN, 5/18/99)
    1652 May 29, English Admiral Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp. (SC, 5/29/02)
    1652 Jun 27, New Amsterdam (later NYC) passed the 1st speed limit law in US.
    (MC, 6/27/02)
    1652 Jun 29, Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth. (HN, 6/29/98)
    1652 Jul 4, Prince of Cond‚ started a blood bath in Paris. (Maggio)
    1652 Jul 22, Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris. (HN, 7/22/98)
    1652 Oct 21, King Louis XIV returned to Paris. (MC, 10/21/01)
    1652 Michael Sweerts, Flemish artist, painted "Plague in an Ancient City" in Rome. In 1998 it held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
    1652 Under the "Liberty Tree," a tulip poplar at St. John's College campus in Annapolis, Md., Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians. (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)
    1652 War broke out between the Netherlands and England. (ON, 4/00, p.2)

    1653 Feb 2, New Amsterdam -- now New York City -- was incorporated. (AP, 2/2/97)
    1653 Apr 20, Cromwell routed the English parliament. (MC, 4/20/02)
    1653 Jul 4, British Barebones Parliament went into session. (Maggio)
    1653 Oct 1, Russian parliament accepted annexation of Ukraine. (MC, 10/1/01)
    1653 Nov 5, The Iroquois League signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to wage war with other tribes under French protection. (HN, 11/5/98)
    1653 Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector" of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658. (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)
    1653 Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, ordered a wall built to protect the Dutch settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York’s Wall Street its name. (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

    1654 Jan 10, Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to 1667. (LHC, 1/9/03)
    1654 Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united. (MC, 4/12/02)
    1654 May 3, A bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people crossed for free. (AP, 5/3/97)
    1654 Jun 6, Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism. (MC, 6/6/02)
    1654 Jun 7, Louis XIV was crowned King of France in Rheims. (AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)
    1654 Aug 22, Jacob Barsimson, the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam. (MC, 8/22/02)
    1654 Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia. (MC, 11/21/01)

    1655 Mar 25, Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland. (HN, 3/25/99)
    1655 Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
    1655 Apr 4, Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates. (MC, 4/4/02)
    1655 Apr 28, English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet. (MC, 4/28/02)
    1655 May 10, Jamaica was captured by English. (MC, 5/10/02)
    1655 Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw. (MC, 8/29/01)
    1655 Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware. (MC, 9/26/01)
    1655 Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred. (MC, 10/15/01)
    1655 Nov 24, English Lord Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans. (MC, 11/24/01)
    1655 The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC). (SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)
    1655 Peter Stuyvesant launched an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized control of the fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked New Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages. (ON, 4/00, p.2)
    1655 The three Cayman Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell's army captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish. (AP, 5/10/03)

    1656 Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands. (MC, 1/8/02)
    1656 Mar 10, In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion. (HN, 3/10/99)
    1656 Sep 22, In Patuxent, Md., the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of a woman accused of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal. (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)
    1656 Oct 2, US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers. (MC, 10/2/01)
    1656 Oct 3, Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died. (WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)
    1656 Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant. (MC, 10/24/01)
    1656 Oct 25, A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies. (AH, 4/01, p.34)
    c1656 European settlers arrived at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison. (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

    1657 Feb 11, Bernard Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was born. (MC, 2/11/02)
    1657 Mar 23, France and England formed an alliance against Spain. (HN, 3/23/98)
    1657 Mar 31, English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown. (MC, 3/31/02)
    1657 Apr 3, English Lord Protector Cromwell refused the crown. (MC, 4/3/02)
    1657 Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay. (HN, 4/20/99)
    1657 May 9, William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died. (MC, 5/9/02)
    1657 Jun 1, 1st Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY).
    (MC, 6/1/02)
    1657 Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert. (MC, 7/13/02)
    1657 Aug 7, Bogdan Chmielnicki (b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000 Jews, died. (Internet)
    1657 Settlers in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance. (SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)
    1657 By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder. (Hem, 9/04, p.28)

    1658 Mar 5, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was born. (MC, 3/5/02)
    1658 Sep 3, Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over England’s Puritan parliament (1653-58), died at age 59. Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as English Lord Protector. (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(AP, 9/3/97)(ON, 12/00, p.5)(MC, 9/3/01)(MC, 9/3/01)
    1659 Apr 22, Lord protector Cromwell disbanded the English parliament. (MC, 4/22/02)

    1659 May 25, Richard Cromwell resigned as English Lord Protector. (SC, 5/25/02)
    1659 Oct 12, English Rump government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct 13] (MC, 10/12/01)
    1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament" was restored in Dec. [see Oct 12] (PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)
    1659 Quaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony and was hanged in 1660. (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)
    c1659 The British Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather. (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)

    1660 Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia. (HN, 3/13/99)
    1660 May 8, The son of the late Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil war. (PCh, 1992, p.248)
    1660 May 26, Charles II (29), returning from exile, landed at Dover. (PCh, 1992, p.248)
    1660 May 28, George I, king of England (1714-1727), was born. (HN, 5/28/98)(MC, 5/28/02)
    1660 May 29, Charles II, who had fled to France, was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II. (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
    1660 May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle. (SC, 5/29/02)
    1660 Dec 24, Mary I Henriette Stuart (29), queen of England, died. (MC, 12/24/01)
    1660s The British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage. (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)
    1660 Bartholomew Sharpe, a British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood. British buccaneers settled the coast. (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)
    1660 The Palacio Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico. (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)

    1660-1685 King Charles II was ruler of Great Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the entire walls and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One painting depicted Christ healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem and the other was of King Charles II. The frescoes were destroyed in the 1820s under King George IV to reflect a new national style. One fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction after a fire in 1992. Charles is known as "the Merry Monarch" because of his many mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values. (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON, 12/00, p.4)

    Christening: 09 NOV 1597 All Cannings, Wiltshire, England


    Christening: 20 NOV 1597 All Cannings, Wiltshire, England

    Robert NICHOLAS
    Christening: 03 AUG 1599 Nettleton, Wiltshire, England
    Father: Robert NICHOLAS Family
    Mother: Katherine

    Robert NICHOLAS
    Male Family
    Christening: 03 AUG 1599 Nettleton, Wiltshire, England

    Spouse: Alice Family
    Marriage: About 1626 Nettleton, Wiltshire, England