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    Lu13 George Ludlow

    George Ludlow, Esquire of Hill Deverill, was the son of William Ludlow (Lu14) and Jane of Moore
    Born: 1522/23, Wiltshire, , England
    Died: 25 May 1580, Hill Deverell, Wiltshire, where he had resided.

    He left a will on 25 May 1580, proved 4 Feb. 1581.
    Married: 26 Mar1543 Edith Windsor (Wi13), dau of Sir Andrew Windsor, Lord  of Stanwell (Warden of Windsor Castle and made 1st Baron Windsor by Henry VIII when the latter took personal use of Stanwell Manor), Middlesex and Elizabeth Blount.

    Hill Deverill Manor, 1970

     George Ludlow and Edith Windsor had issue:

    Lu12-1) Sir Edmund Ludlow  - m. 1st Bridget Coker, dau. of Henry Coker of Maypowder, Dorset. Bur. Sept. 1587, Hill Deverhill, Wilts. m. 2nd Margaret Manning, dau. of Henry Manning and Katherine Kirkener, widow Viscountess Howard of Binden, Wid. of Thomas Howard Viscount Binden,
    Lu12 Thomas Ludlow b about 1555 m. Jane Pyle
    Lu12-3 Anne Ludlow, married Thomas Hall of London, son of Roger Hall and Margaret, and had a daughter, Helen Hall.
    Lu12-4 Margaret Ludlow, married Robert Vaux of Odiham, Hants
    Lu12-5 Jane Ludlow, m. Nicholas Bassett son of William Bassett and Cecily Gore (The name Gore also appears among the early Nicholas line).
    Lu12-6 Mary Ludlow m Hugh Ryley
    Lu12-7 Ursula Ludlow, m. 1st Rev. William Earth,
    Lu12-8 Philippa Ludlow, m Thomas Zouch, son of Sir John Zouch.
    George Ludlow was 24 when Henry VIII's break with Rome began, 31 at the time of dissolution of the monasteries began and 39 when war against Scotland and France began. As Esquire he is likely to have been called to duty in the field.

    This applies especially for Somerset's campaign:
    Edward Seymour (c.1506-1552) had been created Earl of Hertford after the marriage of his sister, Jane, to Henry VIII in 1536. He had been appointed Lord High Admiral in 1543 and Lord Great Chamberlain in 1543. He became Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector in February 1547. The estates given to him following the dissolution of the monasteries included Allcannings, evidently Robert Nicholas Ni13 became his tenant there.

     Edward Seymour's first problem was the war with Scotland, begun during Henry VIII's reign. The French sent an army to Scotland in July 1547, which defeated the rebels at St Andrews (sentencing the Reformer, John Knox to be a French galley-slave).

     Somerset responded by organizing an army of 18,000 men and a fleet of sixty ships under Edward Lord Clinton, and marching across the border (4 September 1547).
    The Scottish regent, James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran raised a large but poorly equipped army and posted it in a strong tactical position - his left flank defended by the Firth of Forth and the Esk river to the front. The English initially occupied Falside Hill (Brae) but then moved forward to bring their artillery into range.
    For reasons not entirely clear, Arran decided to bring his forces across the Esk and deployed them near Pinkie House. The English mounted a cavalry charge against the Scottish flank but it was easily beaten off. Warwick's force pressed forward and forced Angus to withdraw this isolated Arran's men some of whom panicked a fled. The Highlanders under Huntly on the left, came under fire from the guns of the English fleet and they too broke.

    Somerset pushed his whole force forward and the retreat turned into a rout. Fifteen hundred Scots were captured and still more killed - many drowning in the Esk as they tried to flee the slaughter.

    Somerset's victory seems to have given him the idea that he could conquer all Scotland. He garrisoned a number of Scottish castles and made claims to sovereignty.

     However, in May 1548 a new French army arrived, and the English were forced onto the defensive. Mary, Queen of Scots left in July to marry the French Dauphin (later Francis II) and English control of Boulogne grew untenable.

    In January 1550, Somerset was forced to agree to a peace that surrendered Boulogne and left France in a dominating position in Scotland. The war cost £300,000, and the debasement of the coinage continued. 

    Somerset's religious policies
     Somerset was definitely committed to Protestant reform, although more moderate than some. One of his first actions was to end the restrictions on the printing of bibles imposed by Henry VIII. 

     The Parliament of 1547 on Somerset's direction repealed the laws against heresy - in particular the Act of Six Articles passed during Henry VIII's reactionary years. (This did not prevent Cranmer burning an Anabaptist, Joan Bucher in May 1549 - he merely used common rather than statute law).

     An Act of 1545 had condemned all chantries - priests funded to say masses for the souls of the dead - and Somerset moved to have this ratified and to seize their endowments.

    There were doctrinal reasons for the abolition of chantries: Protestants denied the existence of purgatory and so saw no point in praying for souls irrevocably committed to hell or heaven. However, Somerset's main motive seems to have been a desperate desire for money. Church property was an easy target when, allies had to be rewarded and the Scottish wars financed. 

    In 1549, Acts were passed allowing priests to marry and ordering that the laity should receive both bread and wine at communion. These were two key planks in the Protestant platform. However, Somerset moved more slowly over ceremonial changes,  but did introduce a new English Prayer Book. Occasional outbursts of violent iconoclasm by a few and demonstrations of popular conservatism by others gave reasons for caution about abrupt changes.


    Ludlow DNA

    George Ludlow was High Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1567 and resided some time at West Shireborne.

    There is still a lot of research to do on George Ludlow's activities and career, but the following timeline helps picture the historical background:

    1509 - Henry VIII, becomes king.
    1513 - Battle of Flodden Field (fought at Flodden Edge, Northumberland) in which invading Scots are defeated by the English under their commander, 70 year old Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; James IV of Scotland is killed.
    1515 - Thomas Wolsey, Archbisop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal
    1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg 31st Oct. 1517.
    1520 - Field of Cloth of Gold: Francois I of France meets Henry VIII but fails to gain his support against Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V
    1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther
    1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome
    1530 - Thomas Wolsey dies
    1532 - Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce
    1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
    1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England
    1535 - Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy
    1536 - Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539.
    1537 - Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI
    1539 - Dissolution of Glastonbury Abbey; buildings torched and looted by king's men; Abbot Richard Whiting is executed by hanging atop Glastonbury Tor.
    1540 - Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason
    1542 - Catherine Howard is executed
    1543 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France
    1544 - Henry VIII and Charles V invade France
    1547 - Edward VI, King of England: Duke of Somerset acts as Protector
    1549 - Introduction of uniform Protestant service in England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer
    1550 - Fall of Duke of Somerset:; Duke of Northumberland succeeds as Protector
    1551 -Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion
    1553 - On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days; Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England
    1554 - Execution of Lady Jane Grey
    1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake 
    1558 - England loses Calais, last English possession in France; Death of Mary I; Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal of Catholic legislation in England
    1560 - Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland
    1563 - The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church
    1564 - Peace of Troyes between England and France
    1567 - Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate; James VI, King of Scotland
    1568 - Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle
    1577 - Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580)

    Society and economy
     During the 1540s the price of food increased steeply, while wages barely increased - indeed, in real terms they declined by about half. Increasing population and the great debasement were the two main causes of price inflation.

    The value of English currency abroad fell, but cloth exports remained stagnant. A few large farmers benefited from the price increases, but the mass of wage earners and all those on fixed incomes suffered severely.

     Hunger and poverty led to social unrest, and many blamed enclosure of land for inflation. 

     Somerset tried without success to persuade Parliament to take steps against enclosure. The failure of these policies, poor harvests, and the spread of plague combined to produce serious popular unrest from Spring of 1549 onwards.

    Rebellion broke out in Devon and Cornwall in 1549. The Cornish-speaking populace resented the English liturgy that the new Prayer Book put in place of the familiar Latin service. They were joined by conservative clerics and some local gentlemen.
    The rebels laid siege to Exeter (10 June) until dispersed by an army of Italian and German mercenary troops in August. A wave of savage repression followed, and many rebels were summarily hanged.

     A minor rebellion in Oxfordshire was suppressed by hanging the offending priests from the steeples of their own churches

    In July 1549, a far more serious rebellion erupted in Norfolk. The Norfolk rebels were Protestants and their main grievances were economic. Robert Ket (Kett) a local landowner became the rebels' leader when he cooperated in the tearing down of his own fences as well as others that had enclosed common land. From his starting point in Wymondham, he was able to rally 12,000 men.
    Ket's forces camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich, captured the city and repulsed the initial attacks of government forces. But in August, John Dudley, Earl of Warwick forced the rebels out of Norwich and routed the rebels nearby at Dussindale. Almost 3,000 rebel soldiers were killed and fifty more were executed afterwards.
    The Fall of Somerset
     The rebellions of 1649 increased the discontent felt by many important noblemen at Somerset's high-handedness. A cabal of Privy Councilors - including John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton - began to work for Somerset's overthrow.

    Somerset took Edward VI to Windsor and tried to rally support, but could find none. Both factions - the conservative. Catholic supporters of Mary, and the Protestant reformers now led by Warwick - wanted Somerset stripped of power.

     Somerset was sent to the Tower and (although temporarily released in February 1550) and never regained his power. He was re-arrested in October 1551 on flimsy charges of conspiracy, because Northumberland feared that he was trying to organize a counter-coup. A jury refused to find Somerset guilty of treason, but did convict him of felony (for fraudulent dealing whilst chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster). He was executed 22 January 1552.

    Warwick consolidated his power by ingratiating himself with Edward VI, who personally sat in the Privy Council from August 1551.

     In February 1550 Warwick became Lord President of the Council, and in October 1551 (despite lacking any blood relationship to the royal family) became Duke of Northumberland.