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Cecil Coat of Arms
Leonard Calvert (1606-1647)
Leonard Calvert, lead the sailing expedition of the Ark and Dove to Maryland in 1633. Leonard's older brother, Cecil Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore, had appointed Leonard to be Maryland's first Governor. Leonard carried with him a letter containing Cecil's "Instructions" These "Instructions" described how to establish Maryland's first elected Assembly and provided a set of laws for the colony. As Governor, Leonard was in charge of Maryland's militia, sea forces, court system and finances1. When the colonists landed in Virginia, Leonard hired Captain Henry Fleet to act as a guide. Leonard knew that Capt. Fleet would be a good guide, because Fleet had lived with Native Americans and spoke their languages2. In February 1634, the two ships approached the Chesapeake Bay for the first time. Leonard and Captain Fleet decided to go out and meet with the head chieftains of the Native Americans before the colonists landed. The Indians called their head chieftains by the title werowance. The Werowance of the Yoacomoco Indians agreed to sell a village to the Calverts in exchange for gifts, trading guarantees and protection from their enemies, the Susquehannock and Iroquois Indians. The Yoacomoco village property purchased by Leonard became the English settlement of St. Mary's City on March 27, 1634.3. Leonard's years as Governor of the new colony were often difficult. William Claiborne went to the King of England and claimed that the Calvert family had no right to land in Maryland. Claiborne and his fellow Kent Islanders had settled there and established a trading post with the Indians in 1631. King Charles I ruled in favor of the Calverts and this made Claiborne and other Virginians enemies of the Maryland colony. The Susquehannock Indians also raided and attacked English settlements as well as Piscataway Indian villages during the 1630s and early 1640s.

Leonard did not stay in Maryland throughout the time he was Governor. Twice he left the colony to visit England in 1641/42 and 1643/44. He had a family in England, but because Catholic marriages were kept secret in England we do not know for certain who his wife was. Some historians believe that Leonard's wife was Ann Brent, sister of Margaret and Giles Brent4. We do know that Leonard had a son named William and a daughter named Anne who grew up in England.
To make matters worse for Leonard, the English Civil War came to the shores of the Chesapeake Bay in the 1640s. Parliamentary supporter, Captain Richard Ingle and his men attacked and plundered St. Mary's City in 1645. Ingle captured some of Maryland's leaders. Some historians believe that Captain Ingle coordinated his attack with William Claiborne5. Certainly, Ingle wanted to claim the Maryland colony for England's Parliament. Leonard escaped capture and controlled Maryland's armies from a headquarters in Virginia. Leonard and his militia restored Proprietary control of the Maryland colony in 1647. However, Leonard died of an illness in the summer of the same year. Before he died, Leonard wrote a will naming Margaret Brent, the executor of his estate. As executor, Margaret had to follow Leonard's command to "Take all & pay all." This meant that he told Margaret to use money from both his estate and his brother, Lord Baltimore's estate to pay the militia men who had defended Maryland. Leonard's will also named Thomas Greene as the new Governor of Maryland. 1Timothy B. Riordan, The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650. St. Mary's City, Maryland, forthcoming publication. St. Mary's City, Maryland, (June 1, 1997), page 2-7.

2Frederick J. Fausz, "Present at the 'Creation'," Maryland Historical Magazine vol. 79 (Spring 1984): 15.

3Fausz, "Present at the 'Creation'," 15.

4For example, see Edward C. Papenfuse, et al, Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 190.

5Timothy B. Rioridan discusses evidence for Richard Ingle and William Claiborne's collaboration on the attack, "The Plundering Time," 10-11 to 10-17. For a general description of the attacks on Maryland during the English Civil War, see Aubrey C. Land, Colonial Maryland A History (Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1981), 45-49.
LINKED DOCUMENTS OR IMAGES: SOURCES:
  • Fausz, Frederick J.   "Present at the 'Creation': The Chesapeake World That Greeted the Maryland Colonists." Maryland Historical Magazine vol. 79 (Spring 1984): 7-20.

  • Papenfuse, Edward C., et al.  A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789,  2 vols.  Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.

  • Riordan, Timothy B.  The Plundering Time:  Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650. St. Mary's City, Maryland, forthcoming publication.

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Ca12-3 Leonard Calvert, Governor, b 1606 in London, England d 11 JUN 1647 in St. Mary's Co., MD
m Anne Brent b: 1613 in England
Ca12-3-1 William Calvert b 4 JUL 1643 in England d MAY 1682 in Wicomico River, Charles Co, MD (drowned)
m 15 DEC 1664 Elizabeth Stone b 23 AUG 1643 in Baltimore, MD
Ca12-3-1-1 Elizabeth Calvert b 5 JAN 1665/66 in Charles Co MD d 1684 in Charles Co MD m 1 JAN 1680/81 in Charles Co James Neale Jr b 5 JUN 1650 in Charles Co MD or Spain son of Capt James Neale and Anna Maria Gill he m2 Elizabeth Lord -1 Mary Neale b 1682 in Charles Co MD d 1758 in Charles Co m1 Jeremiah Adderton m2 c 1714 Joseph Van Swearingen b c 1678 in ST Mary's Co m3 Charles Egerton Jr m4 William Deacon
son of Garrett Van Swearingen b 1636 in Reensterdwan or Beemsterdam, Holland and Mary Smith b ABT 1655
-a Eleanor Swearingen b c 1682 in St. Mary's, Md d c 1723 m before 1712 to James King Carroll.
-c Charles Van Swearingen b c 1677 in St. Mary's Md d before 1712.
-d Anne Van Swearingen b c 1679 in St. Mary's Md d after 1727 m William Bladen b 27 Feb. 1672 Bap in Steeton, Yorks d 8 Aug. 1718 in Md son Nathaniel Bladen b c 1643 England and Isabella Fairfax b 1637 in England
-d-1 Anne Bladen b 1696 Annapolis MD
-d-2 Gov Thomas Bladen b 1698 in Annapolis, Anne Arundel
-e Dorothy Swearingen b c 1684 in St Mary's MD d 1728 in Annapolis Md
-f Theresa Swearingen b c 1686 in St Mary's MD d 1 January 1754.
-g Mary Maria van Swearingen b St Mary's, MD d 1734 m Martin Kirk d before 1709.
-h Sarah Van Swearingen b 1688 in St. Mary's Md d before Nov 1718 m before 1718 Gerald Slye d 1733 in Bushwood, St Mary's, Md
-h-1 Mary Slye m Henry Neale b 1691 d 1742 son of James Neale Jr and Elizabeth Lord
-h-1-1 Gerrard Neale b 1725
-h-1-2 Henrietta Neale b 1734 m John Ford b 1714 d 1770
-h-1-2-1 Philip Ford b 1726 d 1806 m Mary Thompson
-h-1-2-1-1 Philip Ford b 1748 d 1798 m Elizabeth Spalden b 1754
-h-1-2-2 Ann Ford b 1730 d 1773 m John Mattingly b 1738 d 1773
-h-1-2-3 Joseph Ford b 1751 d 1812 m Mary Spinks b 1757 d 1836
-h-1-2-4 Margaret Ford b 1754 m Henry Medley
-h-1-3 Henry Neale b 1747
-h-1-4 Mary Neale b 1749
-h-2 Susannah Slye b 1706 m1 Philip Key d 1764 m2 Charles Craycroft b 1700 d 1765
-h-3 Ann Slye b 1710 m Francis Boarman
-h-4 Jane Slye b 1720
-2? y Neal
possibly here were:
Ca12-3-1-2 John Calvert b 1668 d 1739
m1 Constant Barton
m2 Anne Notley b 1670 d 1723
-1
Ca12-3-1-3? Richard Calvert b 1672
Ca12-3-1-4? Cecilius Calvert b 1675?
Ca12-3-1-5 George Calvert b ABT 1670 in Maryland
Ca12-3-2 Anne Calvert b 23 JUN 1645 in England